Ukudilika kwenhlabathi nokugeleza kodaka: izimbangela nemiphumela

Ukudilika kwenhlabathi nokugeleza kodaka: izimbangela nemiphumela
Ukudilika kwenhlabathi nokugeleza kodaka: izimbangela nemiphumela
Anonim

Ukugeleza kodaka imifudlana ehlanganisa udaka namatshe ashibilika ehle emithambekeni yezintaba nasemifuleni, eshanela noma yiziphi izithiyo endleleni yawo. Isenzakalo esinjalo semvelo singenye yezinto eziyingozi kakhulu empilweni yabantu kanye nengqalasizinda yezindawo zokuhlala.

Ukwenzeka kokugeleza kodaka

Ukuwa kwenzeke kule ndawo, ngenxa yalokho izihlahla ezimbalwa zonakaliswe

Ngesikhathi sokuncibilika okusheshayo kwezinguzunga zeqhwa ezintabeni, kanye nangemuva kwezimvula ezinamandla, iziphepho, iziphepho, amanzi anqwabelana phambi kwesithiyo esingokwemvelo. Kwezinye izindawo kwakhiwa amachibi amakhulu namadamu. Ukwakheka okunjalo kubizwa ngokuthi amachibi e-moraine, yibo okuthi, ngemuva kwesikhathi esithile, baguqulwe baba ukudilika komhlaba, ukugeleza kodaka, ukudilika kwenhlabathi nama-avalanche. I-Morines iqukethe:

  1. Isihlabathi.
  2. Valunov.
  3. Iqhwa neqhwa.
  4. Hardwood.
  5. Itshe elichotshoziwe.
  6. Clays.

Esikhathini esithile, inqwaba yodaka, exutshwe namanzi namatshe, ibhodloza amadamu, igijima yehle ngomfudlana osheshayo. Njengoba ikhula isivinini esikhulu, yenza umsindo omkhulu, umfudlana ucosha amatshe engeziwe endleleni.nezihlahla, ngalokho kukhulisa amandla ako okubhubhisa.

Ukugeleza kodaka ekuqaleni kokunyakaza kwawo akufiki ngaphezu kwamamitha ayi-10 ubude. Ngemva kokugqashuka kwenhlekelele yemvelo emhosheni futhi yehla entabeni, izosakazeka endaweni eyisicaba. Ijubane layo lokunyakaza nokuphakama kuzoncishiswa kakhulu. Uma ifinyelela isithiyo, iyama.

Imiphumela yokwehla kwamadwala namanzi

Esimeni lapho indawo yokuhlala isendleleni yokugeleza kodaka, imiphumela kubantu bayo ingaba yinhlekelele. Inhlekelele yemvelo iyabulala, futhi ngokuvamile iholela ekulahlekelweni okukhulu kwezinto ezibonakalayo. Ikakhulukazi ukucekelwa phansi okuningi kulethwa ukwehla kwamatshe namanzi ezigodini lapho abantu behlala ezindlini zohlaka ezingaqinisiwe kahle.

Imiphumela yokudilika kwenhlabathi, ukugeleza kodaka nokudilika kwenhlabathi kuyinhlekelele. Ngakho, kwenzeka inhlekelele enkulu ngo-1921 inhloko-dolobha yangaphambili Kazakhstan - Alma-Ata. Ebusuku, umfudlana onamandla wezintaba, ongaba ama-cubic metres ayisigidi ngosayizi, washaya idolobha elilele. Ngenxa yesimo esiphuthumayo, kwakhiwa umugqa wamatshe nodaka olungamamitha angu-200 ububanzi khona kanye phakathi nedolobha. Izakhiwo zicekeleke phansi, ingqalasizinda yonakala, kwabulawa abantu.

E-Russia, ukugeleza kodaka nakho kuvame ukwakheka ezindaweni ezinezintaba, ikakhulukazi kulezo zindawo lapho lina khona kakhulu, isibonelo, eCaucasus naseMpumalanga Ekude. E-Tajikistan, ukugeleza kodaka kwenzeka njalo ngonyaka ngenkathi yasentwasahlobo. Ikakhulukazi lesi simo senzeka ezintabeni eziphakeme ngesikhathi sokuncibilika kweqhwa.

Ukuvikela ekugelezeni kodaka

Abatakuli bazama ukusiza izisulu ngemuvaizimo eziphuthumayo

Ukuze kuvikelwe abantu kanye nabavakashi ekuweni okungazelelwe kwamadwala ezindaweni eziyingozi ikakhulukazi ezinezintaba, lapho ukudilika kwenhlabathi, ukugeleza kodaka, ukubhidlika kwenhlabathi nama-avalanche kwenzeka ngezikhathi ezithile, kuyadingeka ukukuqapha usemoyeni. Ochwepheshe babheka ukwakheka kwamachibi asezintabeni futhi bangabikezela kusengaphambili ngengozi yenhlekelele ephuthumayo. Onjiniyela baphinde bakha izithiyo zokwenziwa ezilwa nokugeleza kodaka kanye namashaneli okuphambukisa, angamakhilomitha angamakhulu ambalwa ubude.

Ngo-1966, kwakhiwa idamu elivikelayo ngomhlaba kanye namatshe amakhulu akhiwe eduze kwedolobha lase-Alma-Ata. Isisindo sezinto zokwakha safinyelela cishe amathani ayizigidi ezi-2.5. Ngemuva kweminyaka engu-7, isakhiwo sokwenziwa sisindise izimpilo zezakhamizi eziningi, sivikela idolobha ekugelezeni kodaka kwamandla angakaze abonwe.

Naphezu kweqiniso lokuthi ezimweni eziningi ukugeleza kodaka kuwela kungazelelwe ezintabeni, ososayensi baye bafunda ukubikezela indlela abasondela ngayo ngezinye izimpawu, ngokwesibonelo, ngokushintsha umbala wamanzi echibini elisezintabeni.

Ukusinda Kwesimo Esiphuthumayo

Izivakashi ezivame ukuhamba ezintabeni kufanele ziqaphele ingozi yokudilika kwenhlabathi, ukugeleza kodaka, ukudilika kwenhlabathi, ukuphepha kwempilo. Imithetho yokuphepha ingase isindise impilo yakho ngolunye usuku!

Ukuze ulungiselele kahle uhambo olunzima futhi olude ezintabeni, kufanele uthole isibikezelo sezulu ngaphambi kokuhamba. Uma lina kakhulu ezintabeni, khona-ke amathuba okugeleza kodaka anda kakhulu. Ukuze uphephe, kungcono ukugcina engxenyeni engaphakathi yokugoba kwemifula, ngoba ukugeleza kodaka kuphakama kakhulu ohlangothini olungaphandle. Futhi, akufanele uchithe ubusuku eduze kwamachibi nezintaba zezintaba, futhinasemihosheni emincane.

Kuyini ukudilika komhlaba

Imiphumela yokuwa kwendawo yokuhlala

Ukudilika kwe-landslide ukugudluka kwe-downslope kwenqwaba yamadwala. Isizathu sokuvela kwazo izikhathi eziningi yizimvula ezinamandla, okubangela ukuthi amatshe aguguleke.

Ukudilika kwenhlabathi kungenzeka nganoma yisiphi isikhathi sonyaka, futhi kuhluke kwelinye ngebanga lokucekela phansi. Ukugudluzwa kancane kwetshe kuholela ekulimaleni kwemigwaqo. Ukucekelwa phansi okukhulu nokubhodlozwa kwamatshe kuholela ekubhidlikeni kwezindlu, nasekubulaleni abantu.

Ukuhlukaniswa kokudilika komhlaba kube izinhlobo

Ama-landslides ahlukaniswe ngokunensa, amaphakathi futhi ayashesha. Umnyakazo wokuqala ngesivinini esiphansi (amasentimitha ambalwa ngonyaka). Medium - amamitha ambalwa ngosuku. Ukufuduka okunjalo akuholeli ezinhlekeleleni, nokho-ke, kwesinye isikhathi izehlakalo ezinjalo zemvelo ziholela ekubhidlikeni kwezindlu nezakhiwo ezingaphandle.

Ukudilika kwenhlabathi okusheshayo kuthathwa njengokuyingozi kakhulu, ngoba kulokhu, imifudlana yamanzi anamatshe ihlehla ezintabeni futhi yehle ngesivinini esikhulu.

Konke ukunyakaza kwamatshe nenqwaba yobumba kungabikezelwa ngokunaka lezi zimpawu ezilandelayo:

  • imifantu emisha nemifantu eyakhiwe enhlabathini;
  • amatshe awe ezintabeni.

Ungakugwema kanjani ukucekelwa phansi kanye nezingozi

Imiphumela yomhlangano yahlala phansi esigodini

Ngokumelene nesizinda sezimvula ezingapheli, amasignali angenhla kufanele abe izimpawu zengozi kumasevisi ezokuphepha kanye nenani labantu. Ukutholwa ngesikhathi kwezimpawuukudilika komhlaba okuzayo kuzosiza ukuthatha izinyathelo zokuhlenga kanye nokukhipha abantu.

Njengesinyathelo sokuvikela nesivikelo ekonakalisweni, amanetha avikelayo, amathaneli okwenziwa, kanye nesembozo sezihlahla kuyakhiwa eduze namadolobha. Izakhiwo zokuvikela usebe kanye nokulungiswa kwemithambeka ngezinqwaba nakho kuzifakazele kahle.

Where rise

Abaningi bayazibuza ukuthi iziphi iziqhwa, ukudilika kwenhlabathi, ukugeleza kodaka kanye nokudilika kwenhlabathi kuvame ukwenzeka. Ukugudluzwa kwamadwala, izixuku ezinkulu zeqhwa namanzi kwenzeka ezindaweni noma emithambekeni ngenxa yokungalingani, okubangelwa ukwanda kokuqina komthambeko. Lokhu kwenzeka kakhulu ngezizathu ezimbalwa:

  1. Imvula eningi.
  2. Isimo sezulu noma ukugcwala kwamanzi kwedwala ngamanzi angaphansi komhlaba.
  3. Ukuzamazama komhlaba.
  4. Ukwakhiwa kanye nemisebenzi yabantu engacabangi izimo zokuma komhlaba zale ndawo.

Ukuqiniswa kokudilika kwenhlabathi kwenziwa lula ukuthambeka komhlaba ukuya eweni, imifantu esiqongweni sentaba, nayo eqondiswe ngasemthambekeni. Ezindaweni lapho inhlabathi imanziswe kakhulu yizimvula, ukudilika kwenhlabathi kufana nomfudlana. Izinhlekelele zemvelo ezinjalo zidala umonakalo omkhulu emhlabeni wokulima, amabhizinisi kanye nezindawo zokuhlala.

Ezindaweni eziphakeme nasezifundeni ezisenyakatho yezwe lethu, ukujiya kwenhlabathi kungamasentimitha ambalwa kuphela, ngakho-ke kulula kakhulu ukuphuka. Isibonelo yindawo esendaweni yase-Orlinaya Sopka (idolobha laseVladivostok), lapho ukugawulwa kwamahlathi okungalawuleki kwaqala ekuqaleni kwawo-2000. Ngenxa yalokhoukungenelela komuntu egqumeni kwanyamalala izimila. Ngemva kwemvula ngayinye, udaka olunesiphepho luthululela emigwaqweni yedolobha, ebivinjwe izihlahla ngaphambilini.

Ukudilika komhlaba kuvame ukutholakala ezindaweni lapho izinqubo zokuguguleka kwemithambeka zenzeka khona. Kwenzeka lapho uquqaba lwamatshe lulahlekelwa ukwesekwa ngenxa yokungalingani. Ukudilika kwenhlabathi okukhulu kwenzeka ezindaweni lapho kukhona:

  • imithambeka yezintaba eyenziwe ngamatshe angangeni namanzi ashintshanayo;
  • izinqwaba zamatshe enziwe ngumuntu eduze kwezimayini noma izinkwali.

Ukudilika komhlaba okuvela eceleni kwentaba ngendlela yenqwaba yemfucumfucu kubizwa ngokuthi ama-rockfalls. Uma ibhulokhi enkulu yetshe ishelela endaweni, lokho kusho ukuthi into engokwemvelo enjalo ibizwa ngokuthi ukugoqa.

Izimo zokudilika komhlaba okukhulu

Ukugeleza kodaka kushanela yonke into esendleleni yawo, ngisho nezihlahla ezinkulu

Ukuze ufunde kabanzi mayelana nokuhlangana okukhulu kokudilika kwenhlabathi, ukugeleza kodaka, ukudilika kwenhlabathi, izinguzunga zamaqhwa kanye nemiphumela yabantu, kufanele ubhekisele emibhalweni yomlando. Ofakazi bezinhlekelele ezimbi bavame ukuchaza ukwehla kwezindimbane zamadwala namaqhwa asendulo. Ososayensi bakholelwa ukuthi ukwehla okukhulu kwamatshe emhlabeni kwenzeka ekuqaleni kwenkathi yethu eduze nomfula iSaidmarreh eningizimu ye-Iran. Isamba sesisindo sokudilika komhlaba sasicishe sibe amathani ayizigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezingama-50, futhi umthamo wawo wawungama-cubic kilometer angama-20. Inqwaba, ehlanganisa amatshe namanzi, yadilika isuka eNtabeni Kabir Bukh, ukuphakama kwayo kwafinyelela kumamitha angu-900. Ukudilika kwenhlabathi kwawela umfula ngamakhilomitha angu-8 ububanzi, yabe isiwela umfula futhi yema ngemva kwamakhilomitha angu-17. ATNgenxa yokuvinjwa komfula, kwakhiwa ichibi elikhulu elinokujula okungamamitha angu-180 nobubanzi obungamakhilomitha angu-65.

Emibhalweni yasendulo yaseRussia kukhona ulwazi mayelana nokudilika kwenhlabathi okukhulu. Okudume kakhulu kubo kuqale ngekhulu le-15 esifundeni saseNizhny Novgorod. Kwabe sekulimazeka amayadi angu-150, abantu abaningi nezilwane zasemapulazini zathinteka.

Izinga lokucekela phansi kanye nemiphumela yokudilika kwenhlabathi nokugeleza kodaka kuncike ekumineni kwezakhiwo kanye nenani labantu abahlala endaweni yenhlekelele. Ukubhidlika komhlaba okucekele phansi kakhulu kwenzeka eSifundazweni saseGansu (China) ngo-1920. Kwafa abantu abangaphezu kwezinkulungwane eziyikhulu ngaleso sikhathi. Okunye ukudilika komhlaba okunamandla okwathatha izimpilo zabantu abayizinkulungwane ezingama-25 kwabhaliswa ePeru (1970). Ngenxa yokuzamazama komhlaba, inqwaba yamatshe namanzi yawela esigodini ngesivinini esingamakhilomitha angu-250 ngehora. Phakathi nenhlekelele, amadolobha ase-Ranrahirca nase-Yungai acekeleke phansi kancane.

Ukuqagela kokudilika komhlaba

Ukubikezela ukudilika kwenhlabathi nokugeleza kodaka, ososayensi bahlala benza ucwaningo lokuma kwezwe futhi benza imephu yezindawo eziyingozi.

Ukuthwebula izithombe zasemoyeni kwenzelwa ukuhlonza izindawo lapho kunqwabelene khona okokusebenza kokudilika komhlaba. Izithombe zikhombisa ngokusobala izindawo lapho izingcezu zamatshe zingahle ziphume khona. Izazi zokwakheka komhlaba ziphinde zinqume izici zetshe letshe, umthamo kanye nemvelo yokugeleza kwamanzi angaphansi komhlaba, ukundindizela okubangelwa ukuzamazama komhlaba, kanye nama-engeli emithambeka.

Ukuvikelwa kokudilika komhlaba

Ukudilika kwenhlabathi kwacekela phansi umgwaqo

Uma amathuba okudilika kwenhlabathi nokugeleza kodaka kuphezulu, amasevisi akhethekile athatha izinyathelo zokuvikela.labantu kanye nezakhiwo ezivela entweni enjalo yemvelo, okungukuthi, ziqinisa imithambeka yogu lolwandle nemifula ngodonga noma imishayo. Ukushelela komhlabathi kuvinjelwa ngokushayela izinqwaba ngephethini ye-checkerboard, ukutshala izihlahla, kanye nokuqandisa umhlaba okuzenzela. Ukuvimbela ubumba olumanzi ukuba luphume, lomiswa yi-electroosmosis. Ukwehla kokudilika kwenhlabathi nokugeleza kodaka kungavinjelwa ngokwakhiwa kwangaphambili kwezakhiwo zokudonsa amanzi ezingavala indlela eya emanzini angaphansi komhlaba namanzi angaphezulu, ngaleyo ndlela kuvimbele ukuguguleka komhlabathi. Amanzi angaphezulu angaphambukiswa, imisele ingakhishwa, amanzi angaphansi komhlaba angakhishwa ngosizo lwemithombo. Izinyathelo ezinjalo zibiza kakhulu ukuzisebenzisa, kodwa izinyathelo ezinjalo zingavimbela ukucekelwa phansi kwezakhiwo futhi zigweme ukulimala kwabantu.

Ixwayisa umphakathi

Umthwebuli wezithombe uthwebula i-avalanche

Inani labantu liyaxwayiswa ngengozi yokuzamazama komhlaba, ukudilika kwenhlabathi nokugeleza kodaka emaminithini ambalwa, okungenani, emahoreni ambalwa. Ukuze wazise indawo enkulu enabantu abaningi, i-alamu inikezwa kusetshenziswa inhlabamkhosi, futhi abamemezeli bamemezela ubungozi ku-TV nomsakazo.

Izici eziyinhloko ezilimazayo ekubhidlikeni komhlaba nokugeleza kodaka amatshe entaba ashayisana phakathi nesikhathi sokunyakaza kwawo esuka ezintabeni. Indlela yamadwala ibonakala ngomsindo omkhulu wamatshe aginqikayo.

Abantu abahlala endaweni eyingozi ikakhulukazi enezintaba, lapho kungenzeka khona iziqhwala, ukugeleza kodaka nokudilika kwenhlabathi, kufanele bazi ukuthi inkathazo ingavela ngaluphi uhlangothi, izoba yini imvelo yokucekela phansi. Izakhamuzi kufanele futhiyazi izindlela zokuphunyuka.

Ezindaweni ezinjalo zokuhlala, izindlu nezindawo ezakhiwe kuzo kufanele ziqiniswe. Uma ingozi yaziwa kusengaphambili, ukukhishwa okuphuthumayo kwabantu, impahla nezilwane ezindaweni eziphephile kuyenziwa. Ngaphambi kokuba uhambe ekhaya, kufanele uhambe nezinto eziyigugu kakhulu. Impahla esele, engeke ithathwe nawe, kufanele ipakishwe ukuze ivikeleke ekungcoleni nasemanzini. Iminyango namafasitela kufanele kuvalwe. Kuyadingeka futhi ukuvala imbobo yokukhipha umoya. Kuphoqelekile ukuvala amanzi negesi, ukucima ugesi. Izinto ezinobuthi nezivuthayo kumele zikhishwe endlini, zibekwe emigodini ekude nendlu.

Uma inani labantu lingazange lixwayiswe kusengaphambili mayelana nokudilika kwenhlabathi nokugeleza kodaka, isakhamuzi ngasinye kufanele sizitholele indawo yokukhosela ngokwaso. Kuyadingeka futhi nokusiza izingane kanye nabantu abadala ukucasha.

Ngemuva kokuphela kwenhlekelele, kufanele wenze isiqiniseko sokuthi ayikho ingozi, shiya indawo yokukhosela bese uqala ukucinga izisulu, uma kunesidingo, ubasize.

Isihloko esidumile