Kuyini ukuwa: izimbangela zokwakheka nezinyathelo zokuphepha

Kuyini ukuwa: izimbangela zokwakheka nezinyathelo zokuphepha
Kuyini ukuwa: izimbangela zokwakheka nezinyathelo zokuphepha
Anonim

Abantu abahlala ezindaweni ezinezintaba bazi kahle kamhlophe ukuthi kuyini ukuwa. Lapho, lesi simo sivamile, nokho siyesabeka kakhulu, esikwazi ukubangela ukucekelwa phansi okubi nokulimala kwabantu.

Ifomu lokuphahlazeka kanjani

Le nto yemvelo ukuhlukana okusheshayo kanye nokunyakaza kwamadwala ngaphansi kwethonya lamandla adonsela phansi emithambekeni ngokugingqika, ukuchotshozwa, okubangelwa ukuthi iphansi lesigodi limbozwe imfucumfucu.

kugeleza udoti

Kwesinye isikhathi amabhulokhi amakhulu ayawa, ahlukane phakathi ohlelweni lokuwela izingcezu eziningi ezincane, aphenduke idwala. Ubukhulu bokubhidlika bungaba nemikhawulo ehlukene - kusukela ekubhidlikeni kwezingcezu ezincane zamatshe kuye eziqulwini ezinkulu zama-cubic metres ayizigidi ezimbalwa.

Izimbangela zokuwa zivame ukubangelwa ukuqina kwamadwala, ukwephulwa kobuqotho bawo, ukwakheka kwemifantu, okuwumphumela wesimo sezulu, ukugezwa kwenhlabathi ngamanzi angaphansi komhlaba nangaphezulu. Le nqubo iphinde ithonywe ukwakheka kokwakheka komhlaba kwendawo, ukundindizela kanye, ngokwezinga elikhulu, imisebenzi yabantu, lapho imithetho yokwakha nokumbiwa kwephulwa.

Ukuhlelwa

Ukuphahlazeka kubonakala ngamandlainqubo (umthamo wamadwala awelayo) kanye nesilinganiso sokubonakaliswa, esinqunywa indawo. Ngokuphathelene nalokhu, zihlukaniswe zibe zincane kakhulu, ivolumu yazo engekho ngaphezu kuka-5 m3, encane (kusuka ku-5 kuya ku-50 m3), emaphakathi (kusuka ku-50 kuye ku-1000 m3) futhi enkulu (ngaphezu kuka-1000 m3). Isibonelo sokuthi kuyini ukuwohloka kwesikali esikhulu, saboniswa ukubhidlika kwamatshe ezintabeni zasePamir ngo-1911, umthamo wawo owaba cishe yizigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezimbili m3.

Ngokuya ngesilinganiso sokubonakaliswa, kukhona okukhulu (ngaphezulu kwamahektha ayi-100), okuphakathi (kusuka ku-50 kuya ku-100 ha), amancane (kusuka ku-5 kuya ku-50 ha) kanye nokudilika komhlaba okuncane (kufika ku-5 ha).

izimbangela zokuwa

Imiphumela yokugoqa

Ingozi enkulu imelwe amadwala asindayo, okuthi, ukuwa nokuwa kusuka emithambekeni, akwazi ukuchoboza noma alale ngisho nezakhiwo ezihlala isikhathi eside. Bagcwalisa indawo ezungezile, ngezinye izikhathi bacasha ngaphansi kwazo zonke izindawo zokuhlala, izindawo zezolimo namahlathi. Ngezinye izikhathi ukuwa okunjalo, ukugeleza kodaka kubhubhisa usebe lwemifula, olusongela izikhukhula, okuletha umonakalo omkhulu emvelweni nasemnothweni wezwe. Izehlakalo eziyizinhlekelele ezinjalo azigcini nje ngokulimaza umnotho, ziholela ekulahlekelweni ukuphila, kodwa ngokuvamile zibangela ushintsho esimweni sezwe.

Iqhwa

Lokhu kuphahlazeka kumele kubalwe nakho. Zivela ezindaweni eziphakeme zezintaba, lapho iqhwa elinqwabelene ngezinye izikhathi ligingqika libe yi-avalanche. Ngokuvamile lokhu kwenzeka emithambekeni engenasihlahla, umthambeka wawo okungenani ama-degree angu-140. Ngesikhathi esifanayo, isisindo esikhulu seqhwa sihamba ngesivinini esingama-30 kuya ku-100 m / s, sibhubhisa.izakhiwo endleleni yazo, egcwalisa imigwaqo nezindlela zezintaba. Izivakashi, izakhamuzi kanye nabanye abantu ababanjwe endleleni yakhona bangase bambozwe iqhwa.

yini ukuwa

Umthelela ovela ku-avalanche enjalo ungaba namandla afika kumathani angama-50 ngemitha yesikwele. Izinhlekelele zemvelo ezifanayo eRussia zivame ukwenzeka eNhlonhlweni yaseKola, eNyakatho yeCaucasus, e-Urals, eMpumalanga Ekude kanye naseWestern Siberia.

I-avalanche ingabangelwa ukuncibilika kweqhwa okukhulu, ukuwa kweqhwa okude isikhathi eside, ukuzamazama komhlaba nanoma yikuphi ukushintshashintsha komoya okubangelwa umuntu.

Izinyathelo zokuqapha

Izakhamuzi ezihlala ezindaweni eziphakeme zazi kahle ukuthi kuyini ukuwa futhi, njengomthetho, zenza imisebenzi ethile yokuqinisa izindawo, izindlu ukuze zizivikele. Iziteshi kanye nokuthunyelwe kwesevisi ye-hydrometeorological kunesibopho sokwazisa umphakathi ngesikhathi mayelana nengozi ehambisana namaphakethe e-landslide kanye nendawo yokusebenza kwawo.

Ukubeka ujantshi wesitimela ezindaweni ezinezintaba kudinga ukukhonjwa ngokucophelela kwezingxenye ezincishwe amathuba ngenxa yokudilika kwenhlabathi ukuze uzidlule ngangokunokwenzeka. Imiqansa ikakhulukazi ngesikhathi kwakhiwa imigwaqo ibekwe ngamatshe. Lapho kwakhiwa izinkwali, imvelo yamadwala, isiqondiso semifantu kuyabhekwa ukuze kuvinjwe ukuchitheka kongqimba olungaphezulu.

Izenzo esimweni lapho kuwa khona

Izinhlekelele zemvelo ngendlela yokudilika kwenhlabathi noma ukudilika kwenhlabathi kungaba nemiphumela engemihle kakhulu. Ngakho-ke, lapho ethola ulwazi mayelana usongo lwabo okungenzeka, bonke abantu abahlala kule nsimu, kanyeimpahla, kanye nezilwane zasemapulazini, zithuthelwa ezindaweni eziphephile.

izinhlekelele zemvelo

Lokhu kwenziwa ngokuvumelana nenqubo emisiwe. Uma isikhathi sivuma, ngaphambi kokukhishwa, kuyadingeka ukwenza umsebenzi wokulungiselela - ukususa yonke impahla ngaphakathi kwendlu, ukuvala iminyango namafasitela ngokuqinile. Qiniseka ukuthi uvala ugesi, amanzi negesi.

Abantu bayaxwayisana ngengozi. Lapho kukhona usongo lokudilika komhlaba, ukuphuma okuphuthumayo kwenziwa emithambekeni ephephile yezintaba noma yamagquma. Ukuzikhuphuka, awukwazi ukuhamba eduze kwemihosha, izindawo zokuhlala nezigodi, ukuze ungaweli embhedeni wokugeleza kodaka.

Kungenzeka ukuthi ubuyele endaweni yokuqala lapho ukubhidlika noma ukunyakaza kokudilika kuphelile kuphela uma uqiniseke ngokugcwele ukuthi akukho ukusongela. Kulokhu kuphela kufanelekile ukucinga abantu abalahlekile futhi unikeze usizo kwabahlukunyeziwe. Ngokwazi ukuthi kuyini ukuwa, izakhamuzi zendawo ezihlala ezindaweni eziphakeme ngokuvamile ziyazi ukuthi kufanele ziziphathe kanjani ezimweni ezinjalo, futhi zilungele ukupakisha ngokushesha futhi zithuthele endaweni ephephile nganoma yisiphi isikhathi.

Isihloko esidumile