Indawo yezenhlalo namasiko: izici, izakhi, izici

Indawo yezenhlalo namasiko: izici, izakhi, izici
Indawo yezenhlalo namasiko: izici, izakhi, izici
Anonim

Uguquko oluyinhloko lwesistimu yobudlelwane bezombangazwe-nokuphatha, inhlalo-mnotho kanye nokulawula okwenzeke emashumini eminyaka adlule kuholele ekwazisweni komphakathi ngokubaluleka kokuzinza komphakathi. Isakhiwo senhlalo sithintwa yinoma yiziphi izinguquko ezenzeka kokuqukethwe kanye nesimo sokusebenzelana kwezigaba zomphakathi namaqembu, ezingeni, imvelo kanye nezinga lokungalingani, ukukhethwa kwezifiso, imigomo yokuphila kanye nokuthandwayo.

Ukuzinza komphakathi nomphakathi ozinzile

imvelo yezenhlalo namasiko

Ngokombono ojwayelekile wefilosofi, ukuzinza komphakathi akukhona nje ukuzinza kwezindawo ezithile zomphakathi, kodwa futhi kuyimpahla ebalulekile yomphakathi, okungeyona ingqikithi yokuzinza kwazo zonke izici zawo. Ngesikhathi esifanayo, ukuzinza kusho ukukhiqizwa kwezinqubo zomphakathi, izakhiwo kanye nobudlelwane ngokomphakathi wonke. Ukukhiqiza okushiwo akumele kube ukuphindaphinda okungacabangeli kwangaphambilini, kodwa ushintsho lwakho.

Umphakathi ozinzile umphakathi othuthukayo futhi ngesikhathi esifanayo ozinzile, obonakala ngezindlela ezimiswe kahle nezinqubo zoshintsho lwezenhlalo olugcina ukuzinza kwawo. Umphakathi uhlala uzinzile ngaphansi kombandela wokuthi ungahlali ungashintshile, kodwa uthuthukisa amandla futhi wenze izinguquko ezidingekayo emphakathini. Ukungqubuzana nezinkinga zokuthuthukiswa komphakathi zivela kuphela uma uzinzile futhi zixazululwa ngezinguquko zokuziphendukela kwemvelo emphakathini.

Ukuzinza komphakathi kungaphansi kokuxhumana kwamaqembu omphakathi, izigaba, izikhungo namanye amayunithi. Ukusebenzisana okukhulunywe ngakho kubonakala kokubili emazingeni amakhulu namancane ebudlelwaneni babantu, ukuziphatha kanye nemisebenzi. Njengoba iyinto ebalulekile, ihlinzekwa yizinto namaphrosesa, kanyekanye asebenza njengemibandela, izimfuneko kanye nezindlela.

Indawo yezenhlalo namasiko

Isici esiyinhloko imvelo yezenhlalo namasiko, lapho ukuhlalisana komuntu ngamunye kanye nekhono lakhe lokuhlanganisa izindinganiso zamasiko ezivamile kuncike khona. Imibono yomuntu ngezwe elimzungezile nendawo yakhe kulo yakhiwa phezu kwesisekelo salo, inomthelela ekwakhiweni kwalokho okuthiwa yisibonelo sokuziphatha esisekelwe eziqondisweni zokuziphatha. Izinguquko zesistimu yezenhlalakahle ezenziwa ngeminyaka yawo-1990 ezweni azizange zibe ngaphandle kobunzima bokushintsha izingxenye eziyinhloko zemvelo yezenhlalo namasiko, ukukhulisa ukungezwani emphakathini nokuqinisa ukungezwani kuwo, kanye nokwanda kokungaqiniseki.

Ukuziba lezi zinqubo kungase kubangele ushintsho kusakhiwo somphakathi, esingabaimbangela ye-civil Revolution. Ngalesi sizathu, ukucwaninga kwezinto ezithonya ubuntu nezinqubo ezibalulekile emphakathini ngokusebenzisa isisekelo sendawo yezenhlalo namasiko kubalulekile.

Chaza indawo ezungezile

imvelo yezenhlalo namasiko

Izazi zefilosofi zichaza imvelo yenhlalo-mpilo ngezingxenye ezintathu:

  1. Mega Wednesday. Umhlaba wenhlalonhle ozungeza umuntu futhi onquma isimo senhlalonhle yezengqondo nesomoya sale nkathi.
  2. Indawo enkulu. Izwe nomphakathi umuntu ayingxenye yawo. I-macro ithonya amasiko nezimo zomphakathi ngokusebenzisa izici ezithile - izikhungo zomphakathi kanye nabezindaba.
  3. Imvelo encane. Indawo emelwe amaqembu amathathu amakhulu - umndeni, abangani kanye neqoqo lezemfundo nelabasebenzi. Iqembu ngalinye liyahluka ngobudala kanye namapharamitha eqoqo.

Ukufunda ngezinkinga zenhlalo yomphakathi namasiko

Izinkinga zesimo senhlalo namasiko zicwaningwa kwisayensi ngezindlela eziningana - ezenhlalakahle, ifilosofi yenhlalonhle, i-ethnological, i-socio-psychological nezinye izici eziningi. Ubuningi bencazelo "yendawo yezenhlalo namasiko" buchazwa kahle ngalokhu.

  1. Indawo yenhlalonhle-yamasiko iqondwa njengeqoqo lemikhuba, izindinganiso, imithetho, imithetho, ubuchwepheshe kanye nolwazi lwesayensi umphakathi kanye nomuntu abanalo njengengxenye yomphakathi ukuze kusetshenziswe imvelo ephilayo.
  2. Leli gama liphinde lisho isenzakalo esizinqubo zaso zamasiko nezenhlalo zixhumene kakhulu futhi zincike kwenye.
  3. Ngaphansi kukaLwesithathufuthi baqonde ingxenye yokuxhumana neyolwazi, ehlanganisa imisebenzi yobuciko nemikhiqizo yemidiya enkulu.
  4. Itemu indawo yenhlalo-masiko ivamise ukuchazwa njengendawo ethile yomphakathi enikezwe umuntu ngamunye futhi evumela umuntu ukuthi angene ebudlelwaneni bamasiko nomphakathi.

Eqinisweni, ukwakheka nokuthuthukiswa kwendawo yezenhlalo namasiko kwenzeka kuphela ohlelweni lokusebenzisana phakathi kwabantu abahlukene nangaphansi kwethonya lamasiko, inhlalo-mnotho nezinye izici. Imvelo ngokwayo inikeza izimo ezikhuthaza abantu ukwenza imisebenzi yansuku zonke. Kunengqondo ukuthi kuthinta izintandokazi, izifiso kanye nesikhundla sokuphila esidingekayo ukuze uzitholele ngokwakho kanye nokwaneliseka kwezidingo eziyisisekelo. Esimeni lapho kuba khona uguquko ku-vector yentuthuko, izici nezici zendawo yezenhlalo namasiko zingase zibe noshintsho.

Izici zemvelo

imvelo yezenhlalo namasiko

Izinguquko zekhwalithi ezenzeke endaweni yezenhlalo namasiko emashumini eminyaka adlule azithinti kuphela okuqukethwe kokugqugquzelayo, kodwa futhi nesakhiwo semibono yabantu kanye namaqembu ewonke mayelana nezici ezibalulekile ze umphakathi. Lokhu kuchazwa iqiniso lokuthi izincazelo zezenhlalo namasiko kanye nencazelo yazo zonke izenzo nempilo yomuntu kunqunywa izinhlobo ezintathu zezinto.

Okokuqala, isici sendawo yenhlalonhle-yamasiko yizimo ezibonakalayo okuncike kuzo ukuthi abantu bangenzani ukuze bafeze izinjongo zabo, izidingo nezintshisakalo zabo, kanye nezinhlobo ezithile kanye nemingcele yokuzibona komuntu kwezinye izindawo. zomlandoizikhathi. Okwesibili, - izindlela zokuhlela nokulawula ukuphila kwezenhlalo namasiko, ezithuthukisiwe futhi ezisungulwe ngenxa yezenzo zomphakathi, phakathi kwazo okuyizinkambiso, izikhungo, izindinganiso zezenzo, ukuxhumana nokuziphatha. Awekho isiko elizosebenza ngaphandle kokwakheka kwezenhlalo namasiko. Okwesithathu, lezi izici zomuntu ngamunye ezithinta amakhono nokuthambekela komuntu lapho ekhetha enye indlela yokuphila ezimeni ezithile.

Ukuthuthukiswa komuntu ngamunye

imvelo yezenhlalo nobuntu

Isimo sendawo yesimanje yezenhlalo namasiko ikakhulukazi sithathwa njengomphumela wezinqubo ezenzeka emphakathini, ezibonisa zonke izingxabano nezinkinga zomphakathi owodwa. Ngesikhathi esifanayo, indawo ezungezile yenza kube nokwenzeka ukunqoba lobu bunzima.

Ukuthuthuka kobuntu kuthonywa izici ezimbalwa, enye yazo okungokwebhayoloji. Kuhlanganisa izici nezici ezinqunywe i-genotype. Ngakho-ke, isici sebhayoloji, kanye nezimpawu nezici umuntu azalwa ngazo emhlabeni, azikwazi ukushintshwa. Isici sesibili sithinta yonke into ezungezile umuntu. Isici sezemvelo sikuvumela ukuthi uthuthukise amandla anikezwe umuntu yi-biological factor. Kumuntu osendaweni yezenhlalo namasiko, kubalulekile ukuthi kube nendawo ezungezile engashintsha indawo eshiwo.

Kufilosofi yesimanje, indawo ezungezile ibonwa njengento enqumayo, kodwa akuyona neze into kuphela enomthelela ekuthuthukisweni komuntu ngamunye. Okokuqala, ukuxhumana okuncikene kanye nendawo-volumetric kuyagcizelelwa.umuntu onomhlaba omzungezile.

Indawo yezenhlalo namasiko nemfundo

Indawo yemfundo yezenhlalo namasiko kufilosofi yesimanje ibonakala njengento enezici ezithile ezenza kube lula ukusebenzisana kwezinto ezihlukahlukene.

Ngokusho kososayensi, izindlela eziyinhloko zokuthonya imvelo zimi kanje:

  1. Indawo idala amathuba emisebenzi eyahlukene, ukuzethemba kanye nokuzethula.
  2. Imvelo inikeza ukukhetha kanye nezibonelo.
  3. Imvelo ibonakala ngokufakwa kwezijeziso zokuthobela noma ukungahambisani nezidingo zakho. Kumongo wendawo yezenhlalo namasiko, izici zawo ezingavamile ukuthi azibhekiseli esihlokweni esithile, futhi izidingo ngokwazo ngokuvamile azicacile, okuthinta ukulawulwa komsebenzi womuntu.

Izici zemvelo

izici zemvelo yezenhlalo namasiko

Indawo yenhlalonhle-yamasiko ihlanganisa izici ezintathu eziyisibopho: izihloko zomsebenzi osebenzayo wezenhlalo namasiko, ezimelwe amaqembu omphakathi, izikhungo kanye nabantu ngabanye; izimo, amathuba kanye nezici zokuqaliswa kwayo; zonke izinyathelo kule nqubo.

Indawo yezenhlalo namasiko ihlukaniswe yaba indawo enkulu kanye nendawo encane. Ngaphakathi kohlaka lokuqala, izici, izikhungo kanye nemithetho yezinga lombuso umsebenzi; ngaphakathi kohlaka lwesibili - imisebenzi yamaqembu amancane nabantu ngabanye abafakwe kuwo, kuhlanganisa nendawo yabo yezenhlalo namasiko.

Ithonya ezinganeni

Ngaphakathi kwezenhlalo namasikoimvelo, imisebenzi yokwakheka okuhlukile kokusungula. Indima ebalulekile kubo idlalwa ama-subcultures asekuxhumaneni okuqhubekayo nemvelo enkulu futhi akha isisekelo esizimele sokuxhuma nayo. Lokhu kukuvumela ukuthi wenze kusebenze amandla okudala omuntu ngamunye. Ngenxa yalesi sizathu, ososayensi abaningi bakholelwa ukuthi ukuthuthukiswa kwendawo yezenhlalo namasiko, ikakhulukazi, ukwakheka komphakathi, kwenzeka ngaphansi kwethonya lesizukulwane esisha.

I-Subculture inegalelo ekwakhekeni nasekuthuthukisweni kwengane. Ibonakala ngenhlanganisela yokugxila ekuhlalisaneni kwabantu kanye nezwe labantu ngokugomela kanye nokuhlukaniswa komuntu ngamunye kwe-"I" eyingqayizivele. Ngalesi sikhathi, isimo senhlalo yamasiko ezingane siba sincike kumphakathi ontanga.

Ubudlelwano obunqunywa indawo yezenhlalo namasiko buhlanganisa inani elikhulu lokuxhumana nemvelo, umhlaba wezenhlalo, ezobuciko, ukusebenzelana nendawo eseduze yomphakathi. Ingqikithi yobudlelwano obaluliwe ithonya amakhono okudala engane ngokusebenzisa izinqubo zengqondo nezokufundisa.

Enqubweni yokuqamba kanye nemfundo, indawo yenhlalo-masiko ithinta izici zomuntu siqu ezisebenza njengesikhuthazo sokuqhubeka nokuthuthuka komuntu.

Indawo yokufundisa yomndeni kanye nenhlalonhle-ngokwesiko

imvelo yezenhlalakahle yezingane

Ukwakheka kwengane njengomuntu kwenzeka emndenini - isikhungo semfundo esibaluleke kakhulu emphakathini. Kuyo, ingane iyahlalisana, yakhiwe njengomuntu futhi ifunda isipiliyoni senhlalo namasiko. Isici esibalulekileukwakheka komphakathi indawo yenhlalo namasiko yomndeni.

Indawo yenhlalo namasiko yomndeni - isiko lempilo, ubudlelwano, ukusebenzelana nokuziphatha okuthuthukile emndenini. Amandla ezenhlalo nezemfundo yendawo ingane ekhulela kuyo ancike kuwo - amathuba nemithombo yawo.

Izici zomndeni njengendawo ezungezile

Amandla omndeni njengendawo yokufunda abonakala ngalezi zenzakalo ezilandelayo:

  • Indlela yomndeni, futhi kuwuhlelo olumisiwe emndenini. Ubudlelwano phakathi kwamalungu omndeni, izinkambiso nemithetho yokuziphatha, i-microclimate, ukukhula komphakathi nokungokomoya kwengane njengomuntu kuncike kukho.
  • Microclimate. Isizinda esingokwengqondo ingane ekhuliswe ngayo nempilo yawo wonke umndeni.
  • Izimo zokuhlala. Inikela ekwaneliseni izidingo ezingokomoya nezibalulekile zomuntu.
  • Amasiko omndeni kanye nendima yawo ekulolongeni umuzwa wobuhle, isiko lobuntu.
  • Ulwazi lokufundisa lwabazali olusetshenziswa ekukhuliseni izingane.
  • Isiko lokuziphatha kwabazali, ubudlelwano babo, ukwenza njengesibonelo enganeni.
  • Amasiko omndeni akha isiko nesithombe somndeni.
  • Isiko lokungcebeleka, ukubumba isiko lokungcebeleka lomuntu okhulayo.

Imisebenzi yesikhungo sezenhlalo namasiko somndeni

imvelo yezemfundo yezenhlalo namasiko

Ngasikhathi sinye, umndeni wenza imisebenzi yezenhlalo neyokufundisa. Phakathi kwazo kukhona:

  • Ukuzala. Kubandakanya ukuzala.
  • Ukuxhumana nokuxhumana. Irisidi kanyeukulinganisa kokuhlangenwe nakho komphakathi kanye nokwakheka kobuntu bomuntu ngamunye ngesisekelo sakho.
  • Ezemfundo.
  • Ezomnotho nezomnotho. Ukuqinisekisa nokwanelisa izindinganiso ezingokomoya nezezinto ezibonakalayo zawo wonke amalungu omndeni.
  • Okuzilibazisa. Ukwesekwa okubonakalayo nokuziphatha kwelungu ngalinye lomndeni.
  • Iyaxhumana. Ukuxhumana emndenini nokulungiselela ingane ngesisekelo sayo sempilo emphakathini.

Nurture Factors

Ukukhuliswa kwengane emndenini kwenziwa ngaphansi kwethonya lezinto ezihlukahlukene. Lapho kubhekwa umndeni njengenye yezinto, izinqubo noma izehlakalo ezinomthelela oqondile emisebenzini yemfundo yabazali kanye nemvelo yenhlalo namasiko yomndeni iyacatshangelwa. Amathemba, ubunzima, impumelelo nezinkinga ekukhuliseni ingane kubikezelwa ngokusekelwe ethonyeni lendawo yezenhlalo namasiko kanye nezici zayo ngazinye.

Isihloko esidumile