Ukuba khona kanye nengqikithi yabantu. Ingqikithi yefilosofi yomuntu

Ukuba khona kanye nengqikithi yabantu. Ingqikithi yefilosofi yomuntu
Ukuba khona kanye nengqikithi yabantu. Ingqikithi yefilosofi yomuntu
Anonim

Ingqikithi yomuntu iwumqondo wefilosofi obonisa izici zemvelo nezici ezibalulekile ezitholakala kubo bonke abantu ngendlela eyodwa noma enye, okubahlukanisa kwezinye izinhlobo nezinhlobo zobuntu. Kunemibono eyahlukene ngalolu daba. Kwabaningi, lo mbono ubonakala usobala, futhi ngokuvamile akekho ocabanga ngawo. Abanye bakholelwa ukuthi ayikho ingqikithi ethile, noma okungenani ayiqondakali. Abanye baphikisa ngokuthi iyakwazi ukwazi, futhi ibeka phambili imiqondo eyahlukene. Omunye umbono ovamile ukuthi ingqikithi yabantu ihlobene ngokuqondile nobuntu, obusondelene kakhulu nengqondo, okusho ukuthi, njengoba esazi lokhu kwakamuva, umuntu angaqonda ingqikithi yomuntu.

ingqikithi nobukhona bomuntu

Okugqamile

Imfuneko eyinhloko yokuba khona kwanoma yimuphi umuntu womuntu ukusebenza komzimba wakhe. Iyingxenye yendawo yemvelo esizungezile. Kusukela kulo mbono, umuntu uyinto phakathi kwezinye izinto futhi uyingxenye yenqubo yokuziphendukela kwemvelo. Kodwa le ncazelo inomkhawulo futhi ibukela phansi indima yempilo esebenzayo yomuntu ngamunye,ngaphandle kokudlulela ngale kwesici sombono wokuzindla wokucabangela izinto ezibonakalayo zekhulu le-17 nele-18.

Ngokombono wesimanjemanje, umuntu akayona nje ingxenye yendalo, kodwa futhi umkhiqizo ophezulu kakhulu wokuthuthuka kwayo, umthwali wesimo senhlalo sokuvela kwezinto. Futhi hhayi nje "umkhiqizo", kodwa futhi umdali. Lesi isidalwa esisebenzayo, esinikezwe ubungqabavu ngendlela yamakhono nokuthambekela. Ngezenzo eziqaphelayo, ezinenhloso, ishintsha indawo ezungezile futhi, phakathi nalezi zinguquko, iyashintsha ngokwayo. Iqiniso lenjongo, eliguqulwa yimisebenzi, liba iqiniso lomuntu, "imvelo yesibili", "umhlaba womuntu". Ngakho-ke, lolu hlangothi lokuba khona lumelela ubunye bemvelo kanye nolwazi olungokomoya lomkhiqizi, okungukuthi, kungokwesimo senhlalo-mlando. Inqubo yokuthuthukisa ubuchwepheshe nezimboni iyincwadi evulekile yamandla abalulekile esintu. Ngokuyifunda, umuntu angakwazi ukuqonda igama elithi "ingqikithi yabantu" ngendlela enenjongo, eyaqaphela, hhayi nje njengomqondo ongabonakali. Ingatholakala kumvelo yomsebenzi wenhloso, lapho kukhona ukusebenzisana kolimi lwento yemvelo, amandla okudala omuntu anesakhiwo esithile senhlalo-mnotho.

Isigaba "existence"

Leli gama lichaza ukuba khona komuntu empilweni yansuku zonke. Kungaleso sikhathi lapho ingqikithi yomsebenzi womuntu iziveza khona, ubudlelwano obuqinile bazo zonke izinhlobo zokuziphatha komuntu, amakhono abo kanye nokuba khona kwabo nokuvela kwesiko lomuntu. Ubukhona bucebe kakhulu kune-essence kanye, ukubauhlobo lokubonakaliswa kwayo, kufaka phakathi, ngaphezu kokubonakaliswa kwamandla omuntu, futhi izimfanelo ezihlukahlukene zezenhlalakahle, zokuziphatha, zezinto eziphilayo nezengqondo. Ubunye bayo yomibili le mibono kuphela okwakha iqiniso lomuntu.

Isigaba "imvelo yomuntu"

Ekhulwini elidlule, ubunjalo nengqikithi yomuntu kwahlonzwa, futhi isidingo somqondo ohlukile sabuzwa. Kodwa ukuthuthukiswa kwesayensi yezinto eziphilayo, ukucwaninga kwenhlangano ye-neural yobuchopho kanye ne-genome kusenza sibheke lesi silinganiso ngendlela entsha. Umbuzo omkhulu ngowokuthi ingabe ikhona yini imvelo yomuntu engaguquki, ehlelekile engancikile kuwo wonke amathonya, noma ingabe iyipulasitiki futhi iyashintsha.

ingqikithi yenhlalo yomuntu

Isazi sefilosofi sase-US u-F. Fukuyama ukholelwa ukuthi sikhona esisodwa, futhi siqinisekisa ukuqhubeka nokuzinza kokuba khona kwethu njengohlobo lwezilwane, kanye nenkolo, kuhlanganisa izimiso zethu eziyisisekelo neziyisisekelo. Omunye usosayensi waseMelika, u-S. Pinker, uchaza imvelo yomuntu njengeqoqo lemizwelo, amakhono okuqonda kanye nezisusa ezivamile kubantu abanesimiso sezinzwa esisebenza ngokujwayelekile. Kusukela kulezi zincazelo ezingenhla kulandela ukuthi izici zomuntu ngamunye zichazwa yizinto ezizuzwe njengefa. Nokho, ososayensi abaningi bakholelwa ukuthi ubuchopho bunquma kuphela ukuthi kungenzeka yini ukwakheka kwamakhono, kodwa abuwanqumeli nhlobo.

I-Essence ngokwayo

Akuwona wonke umuntu obheka umqondo "wengqikithi yabantu" njengosemthethweni. Ngokusho kwezitayela ezifana ne-existentialism,abukho ubunjalo obukhethekile bomuntu, ngoba "uyingqikithi ngokwayo." U-K. Jaspers, ummeleli wawo omkhulu kunabo bonke, wayekholelwa ukuthi isayensi efana nesayensi yezokuhlalisana kwabantu, i-physiology kanye nezinye inikeza ulwazi kuphela ngezici ezithile zokuphila komuntu, kodwa azikwazi ukungena engqikithini yayo, ewukuba khona (ukuba khona). Lo sosayensi wayekholelwa ukuthi kungenzeka ukutadisha umuntu ezicini ezahlukene - ku-physiology njengomzimba, ku-sociology - isidalwa senhlalo, kwengqondo - umphefumulo, njalonjalo, kodwa lokhu akuphenduli umbuzo wokuthi iyini imvelo. kanye nengqikithi yomuntu.ngoba uhlala emele okuthile okungaphezu kwalokho akwaziyo ngaye. Eduze naleli phuzu lokubuka kanye nama-neopositivists. Bayaphika ukuthi kukhona okufanayo kumuntu ngamunye.

Imibono ngomuntu

ENtshonalanga Yurophu, kukholakala ukuthi imisebenzi yezazi zefilosofi zaseJalimane uScheller ("Isikhundla Somuntu Emkhathini"), kanye neka-Plessner ethi "Steps of the Organic and Man" eyanyatheliswa ngo-1928, yaphawula incwadi ethi "The Position of Man in the Universe". ukuqala kwe-anthropology yefilosofi. Izazi eziningi zefilosofi: A. Gehlen (1904-1976), N. Henstenberg (1904), E. Rothacker (1888-1965), O. Bollnov (1913) - zazikhuluma ngakho kuphela. Abacabangi bangaleso sikhathi baveza imibono eminingi ehlakaniphile ngomuntu, engakalahlekelwa ukubaluleka kwayo okuyichazayo. Ngokwesibonelo, uSocrates wakhuthaza abantu besikhathi sakhe ukuba bazazi. Ingqikithi yefilosofi yomuntu, injabulo kanye nenjongo yokuphila kwakuhlotshaniswa nokuqonda ingqikithi yomuntu. Isikhalo sikaSocrates saqhubeka ngokuthi: “Zazi futhi uzoba njaloujabule!" U-Protagoras wacabanga ukuthi umuntu uyisilinganiso sazo zonke izinto.

imvelaphi nengqikithi yomuntu

EGreece yasendulo, ngokokuqala ngqa, umbuzo wemvelaphi yabantu waphakama, kodwa ngokuvamile wawunqunywa ngokuqagela. Isazi sefilosofi saseSyracus u-Empedocles waba ngowokuqala ukusikisela ukuziphendukela kwemvelo, imvelaphi yemvelo yomuntu. Wayekholelwa ukuthi yonke into emhlabeni iqhutshwa ubutha nobungane (inzondo nothando). Ngokwezimfundiso zikaPlato, imiphefumulo iphila ezweni le-epyrean. Ufanise umphefumulo womuntu nenqola, umbusi wayo iNtando, futhi Imizwa nengqondo iboshelwe kuyo. Imizwa imdonsela phansi - ekuzijabuliseni ngokwedlulele, ezintweni ezibonakalayo, kanye Nomqondo - phezulu, ekufezekiseni izimiso ezingokomoya. Lona umnyombo wempilo yomuntu.

U-Aristotle wabona kubantu imiphefumulo emi-3: enengqondo, isilwane nemifino. Umphefumulo wesitshalo unesibopho sokukhula, ukuvuthwa nokuguga komzimba, umphefumulo wesilwane unesibopho sokuzimela ekuhambeni kanye nobubanzi bemizwa engokwengqondo, umphefumulo onengqondo unesibopho sokuzazi, ukuphila okungokomoya nokucabanga. U-Aristotle waba ngowokuqala ukuqonda ukuthi ingqikithi eyinhloko yomuntu ukuphila kwakhe emphakathini, emchaza njengesilwane esihlala emphakathini.

AmaStoyiku ahlonza isimilo nengokomoya, abeka isisekelo esiqinile semibono ngaso njengomuntu oziphethe kahle. Umuntu angakhumbula uDiogenes, owayehlala emgqonyeni, owathi ngokukhanya kwelanga wafuna umuntu esixukwini. NgeNkathi Ephakathi, imibono yasendulo yagxekwa futhi yakhohlwa ngokuphelele. Abamele iRenaissance babuyekeze imibono yakudala, babeka uMuntu enkabeni yokubuka umhlaba, babeka isisekelo seHumanism.

Ohingqikithi yomuntu

NgokukaDostoevsky, ingqikithi yomuntu iyimfihlakalo edinga ukwembulwa, futhi lowo owenza lokhu futhi achithe impilo yakhe yonke kukho, angasho ukuthi wachitha isikhathi sakhe ngeze. U-Engels wayekholelwa ukuthi izinkinga zempilo yethu zizoxazululwa kuphela lapho umuntu aziwa ngokugcwele, enikeza izindlela zokufeza lokhu.

ingqikithi yempilo yomuntu

U-Frolov umchaza njengesihloko senqubo yenhlalo-mlando, njengomuntu we-biosocial, ohlobene ngokofuzo nezinye izinhlobo, kodwa ohlukaniswa ikhono lokukhiqiza amathuluzi omsebenzi, okwazi ukukhuluma nengqondo. Imvelaphi kanye nengqikithi yomuntu ilandelwa kangcono ngokumelene nesizinda semvelo kanye nezwe lezilwane. Ngokungafani nalokhu kwakamuva, abantu babonakala beyizidalwa ezinezici ezilandelayo eziyinhloko: ukwazi, ukuzazi, umsebenzi nokuphila komphakathi.

Linnaeus, ehlukanisa umbuso wezilwane, ufaka umuntu embusweni wezilwane, kodwa wamhlukanisa, kanye nezinkawu ezinkulu, esigabeni sama-hominids. Wabeka ama-Homo sapiens phezulu kakhulu kubaphathi bakhe. Umuntu uyena kuphela isidalwa esinolwazi. Kungenzeka ngenxa yenkulumo ecacile. Ngosizo lwamagama, umuntu uyaziqaphela, kanye neqiniso elizungezile. Bangamangqamuzana ayinhloko, abathwali bokuphila okungokomoya, okuvumela abantu ukuba bashintshe okuqukethwe kokuphila kwabo kwangaphakathi ngosizo lwemisindo, izithombe noma izimpawu. Indawo ebalulekile esigabeni "sengqikithi nobukhona bomuntu" ingeyomsebenzi. Lokhu kwabhalwa yipolitiki yakudalaumnotho A. Smith, umanduleli we-K. Marx kanye nomfundi we-D. Hume. Wachaza umuntu ngokuthi "isilwane esisebenzayo".

Labor

Ekunqumeni okucacisiwe kwengqikithi yomuntu, i-Marxism inamathisela ngokufanelekile ukubaluleka okuyinhloko kokusebenza. U-Engels wathi nguye owasheshisa ukukhula kokuziphendukela kwemvelo kwemvelo yezinto eziphilayo. Umuntu emsebenzini wakhe ukhululekile ngokuphelele, ngokungafani nezilwane, lapho umsebenzi unekhodi eqinile. Abantu bangenza imisebenzi ehluke ngokuphelele nangezindlela ezihlukene. Sikhululekile emsebenzini kangangokuthi asikwazi ngisho … singasebenzi. Ingqikithi yamalungelo abantu itholakala eqinisweni lokuthi ngaphezu kwemisebenzi eyamukelwa emphakathini, kunamalungelo anikezwa umuntu futhi ayithuluzi lokuvikelwa kwakhe komphakathi. Ukuziphatha kwabantu emphakathini kulawulwa umbono womphakathi. Thina, njengezilwane, sizwa ubuhlungu, ukoma, indlala, isifiso sobulili, ibhalansi, njll., kodwa zonke izinzwa zethu zilawulwa umphakathi. Ngakho-ke, ukusebenza kuwumsebenzi oqaphelayo, owenziwe ngumuntu emphakathini. Okuqukethwe ukwazi kwakhiwe ngaphansi kwethonya lakhe, futhi kugxilile ohlelweni lokubamba iqhaza kubudlelwane bezimboni.

Ingqikithi yenhlalo yomuntu

Socialization inqubo yokuthola izici zempilo yomphakathi. Emphakathini kuphela lapho ukuziphatha okufanisiwe okungaqondiswa yimvelo, kodwa ngombono womphakathi, imizwa yezilwane iyavinjelwa, ulimi, amasiko namasiko ayamukelwa. Lapha, abantu bamukela isipiliyoni sobudlelwane bezimboni kusukela ezizukulwaneni ezedlule. Kusukela ku-Aristotle, imvelo yenhlalo ibhekwa njengemaphakathi nesakhiwoubuntu. U-Marx, ngaphezu kwalokho, wabona ingqikithi yomuntu kuphela emvelweni yomphakathi.

ingqikithi yabantu

Ubuntu abuzikhethi izimo zomhlaba wangaphandle, buhlala bukuzo njalo. Ukuhlalisana kwenzeka ngenxa yokwenziwa kwemisebenzi yomphakathi, izindima, ukutholwa kwesimo senhlalo, ukuzivumelanisa nezinkambiso zomphakathi. Ngesikhathi esifanayo, izenzakalo zokuphila komphakathi zingenzeka kuphela ngezenzo zomuntu ngamunye. Isibonelo ubuciko, lapho abaculi, abaqondisi, izimbongi nabaqophi bezithombe bezakha ngomsebenzi wabo. Umphakathi usetha amapharamitha wokuqiniseka komphakathi komuntu ngamunye, ugunyaza uhlelo lwefa lomphakathi, futhi ugcina ibhalansi ngaphakathi kwalesi simiso esiyinkimbinkimbi.

Umuntu onombono wenkolo

Umbono wezwe ngokwenkolo umbono wezwe onjalo, isisekelo sawo esiwukukholelwa ebukhoneni bento ethile engaphezu kwemvelo (imimoya, onkulunkulu, izimangaliso). Ngakho-ke, izinkinga zomuntu zicatshangelwa lapha ngeprism yobunkulunkulu. Ngokwezimfundiso zeBhayibheli, isisekelo sobuKristu, uNkulunkulu wadala umuntu ngomfanekiso wakhe siqu nangokufana naye. Asigxileni kule mfundiso.

imvelo nengqikithi yomuntu

UNkulunkulu wadala umuntu ngodaka lomhlaba. Izazi zenkolo zamaKatolika zanamuhla ziphikisa ngokuthi kwakukhona izenzo ezimbili endalweni yaphezulu: eyokuqala - ukudalwa komhlaba wonke (Indawo Yonke) neyesibili - ukudalwa komphefumulo. Emibhalweni yasendulo yeBhayibheli yamaJuda, kuthiwa umphefumulo uwumoya womuntu, lokho akuphefumulayo. Ngakho-ke, uNkulunkulu uphephetha umphefumulo ngamakhala. Kuyafana nokwesilwane. Ngemva kokufa umoyauyaphela, umzimba uphenduka uthuli, futhi umphefumulo uncibilike ube umoya. Ngemva kwesikhathi esithile, amaJuda aqala ukuhlobanisa umphefumulo negazi lomuntu noma lesilwane.

IBhayibheli linikeza indima enkulu engqikithini yokomoya yomuntu enhliziyweni. Ngokusho kwababhali beTestamente Elidala nelisha, ukucabanga akwenzeki ekhanda, kodwa enhliziyweni. Futhi iqukethe ukuhlakanipha uNkulunkulu akunike umuntu. Futhi ikhanda likhona kuphela ukuze kukhule izinwele kulo. Akukho ukusikisela eBhayibhelini ukuthi abantu bayakwazi ukucabanga ngamakhanda abo. Lo mbono waba nethonya elikhulu emasikweni aseYurophu. Usosayensi omkhulu wekhulu le-18, umcwaningi wesimiso sezinzwa, uBuffon wayeqiniseka ukuthi umuntu ucabanga ngenhliziyo. Ubuchopho, ngokombono wakhe, buyisitho nje sokondliwa kwesimiso sezinzwa. Ababhali beTestamente Elisha bayakuqaphela ukuba khona komphefumulo njengento engahlangene nomzimba. Kodwa umqondo ngokwawo awunamkhawulo. Ama-Jehovist anamuhla ahumusha imibhalo yeTestamente Elisha ngomoya wasendulo futhi awakuqapheli ukungafi komphefumulo womuntu, ekholelwa ukuthi ukuba khona kuyaphela ngemva kokufa.

Isimo somoya somuntu. Umqondo wobuntu

Umuntu uhlelwa ngendlela yokuthi ezimeni zempilo yenhlalo akwazi ukuphenduka abe umuntu womoya, abe ubuntu. Ezincwadini, ungathola izincazelo eziningi zobuntu, izici zabo nezimpawu. Lokhu, okokuqala, yisidalwa esithatha isinqumo ngokuqaphela futhi esibophezelekile kukho konke ukuziphatha nezenzo zaso.

Ingqikithi kamoya yomuntu ingqikithi yobuntu. Indawo emaphakathi lapha igcwele umbono womhlaba. Ikhiqizwa ohlelweni lomsebenzi we-psyche, lapho kuhlukaniswa khona izingxenye ezi-3: lokhuIntando, Imizwa kanye Nomqondo. Emhlabeni kamoya akukho okunye ngaphandle kobuhlakani, umsebenzi wemizwa kanye nezisusa zokuzithandela. Ubudlelwano babo abucaci, basekuxhumaneni kwe-dialectical. Kukhona ukungqubuzana okuthile phakathi kwemizwa, intando kanye nokucabanga. Ukulinganisa phakathi kwalezi zingxenye zengqondo yimpilo kamoya yomuntu.

Ubuntu buhlala buwumkhiqizo nesihloko sempilo yomuntu ngamunye. Akwakhiwa hhayi kuphela ebukhoneni bawo, kodwa nangethonya labanye abantu elihlangana nabo. Inkinga yengqikithi yomuntu ayikwazi ukubhekwa njengento eyodwa. Othisha nezazi zokusebenza kwengqondo bakholelwa ukuthi kungenzeka ukukhuluma ngomuntu ngamunye kusukela esikhathini lapho umuntu enombono wakhe Uqobo lwakhe, ukuzazi kwakhe kwakheka, lapho eqala ukuzehlukanisa nabanye abantu. Umuntu "wakha" umugqa wakhe wokuphila nokuziphatha komphakathi. Ngolimi lwefilosofi, le nqubo ibizwa nge-personalization.

Inhloso nenjongo yokuphila

Umqondo wencazelo yokuphila ungumuntu ngamunye, njengoba le nkinga ayixazululwa ngamakilasi, hhayi ngamaqoqo abasebenzi, hhayi isayensi, kodwa ngabantu ngabanye, abantu ngabanye. Ukuxazulula le nkinga kusho ukuthola indawo yakho emhlabeni, ukuzikhethela kwakho siqu. Sekuyisikhathi eside ongqondongqondo nezazi zefilosofi befuna impendulo yombuzo othi kungani umuntu ephila, ingqikithi umqondo "incazelo yokuphila", kungani eza emhlabeni futhi kwenzekani kithi ngemva kokufa. Ubizo lokuzazi kwakuyisimo esiyisisekelo esiyisisekelo sesiko lamaGreki.

ingqikithi yomoya yomuntu

"Zazi" - ebizwa ngo-Socrates. Kulo mcabango, incazelo yempilo yomuntu ilele ekuhlakanipheni, ekuzifuneni kwakhe, ekunqobeni izilingo nokungazi (sesha ukuthi kuyini okuhle nokubi, iqiniso namaphutha, okuhle nokubi) kusho ukuthini. U-Plato waphikisa ngokuthi injabulo itholakala kuphela ngemva kokufa, ekuphileni kwangemva kokufa, lapho umphefumulo - ingqikithi efanelekile yomuntu - ukhululeka emaketangeni omzimba.

NgokukaPlato, imvelo yomuntu inqunywa umphefumulo wakhe, noma kunalokho umphefumulo nomzimba, kodwa ngokuphakama kwesiqalo sobunkulunkulu, esingafi phezu komzimba, ofayo. Umphefumulo womuntu, ngokusho kwalesi sazi sefilosofi, uqukethe izingxenye ezintathu: eyokuqala ilungile-enengqondo, eyesibili i-lustful-volitional, eyesithathu i-instinctive-affective. Iyiphi kuzo ekhona enquma ukudalelwa komuntu, injongo yokuphila, isiqondiso somsebenzi.

UbuKristu eRussia bamukele umqondo ohlukile. Umgomo ongokomoya ophakeme kakhulu uba isilinganiso esiyinhloko sazo zonke izinto. Ngokuqaphela ukona komuntu, ubuncane, ngisho nokungabaluleki ngaphambi kokuhle, ekuphokopheleni, umuntu uvula ithemba lokukhula ngokomoya, ukwazi kuqondiswe ekuthuthukisweni kokuziphatha okuqhubekayo. Isifiso sokwenza okuhle siba yisisekelo sobuntu, isiqiniseko sokuthuthuka komphakathi.

NgeNkathi Yokukhanyiselwa, abathanda izinto ezibonakalayo baseFrance banqabe umqondo wemvelo yomuntu njengenhlanganisela yezinto ezibonakalayo, ingqikithi yomzimba kanye nomphefumulo ongafi. UVoltaire wakuphika ukungafi komphefumulo, futhi embuzweni wokuthi bukhona yini ubulungisa bukaNkulunkulu ngemva kokufa, wakhetha ukungafi."ukuthula kwenhlonipho". Akazange avumelane noPascal ukuthi umuntu uyisidalwa esibuthakathaka futhi esingabalulekile emvelweni, "umhlanga wokucabanga." Isazi sefilosofi sasikholelwa ukuthi abantu abanalo usizi futhi ababi njengoba uPascal ayecabanga. UVoltaire uchaza umuntu njengesidalwa senhlalo esilwela ukwakha "imiphakathi yamasiko".

Ngakho-ke, ifilosofi ibheka ingqikithi yabantu kumongo wezinto ezikhona emhlabeni wonke. Lezi yizizathu zezenhlalakahle nezomuntu ngamunye, zomlando nemvelo, zezombusazwe nezomnotho, zenkolo nezokuziphatha, ezingokomoya nezingokoqobo. Ingqikithi yomuntu kufilosofi ibhekwa njengamazwe amaningi, njengohlelo oluhlangene, oluhlangene. Uma uphuthelwa noma yisiphi isici sokuba khona, isithombe siyagoqa. Umsebenzi wale sayensi ukuzazi komuntu, njalo ukuqonda okusha nokungunaphakade kwengqikithi yakhe, imvelo, isiphetho sakhe kanye nencazelo yokuba khona. Ngakho-ke, ingqikithi yomuntu kufilosofi, umqondo ososayensi besimanje nabo abaphendukela kuwo, bethola izici zawo ezintsha.

Isihloko esidumile