Aesthetics ifilosofi yobuhle nokusebenza ngokushesha

Aesthetics ifilosofi yobuhle nokusebenza ngokushesha
Aesthetics ifilosofi yobuhle nokusebenza ngokushesha
Anonim

Wona kanye umqondo wobuhle weza kithi uvela eGreece Yasendulo. Lapho izazi zefilosofi zasendulo ziqala ukucabanga ngezigaba ezihlukahlukene nezincazelo zomsebenzi womuntu, zanikeza leli gama ekuboniseni okuhle nokubi, kanye nombono walesi senzakalo ngezinzwa. Kamuva baqala ukucabangela ukuthi i-aesthetics iyinkolelo ekhethekile mayelana nokuthi ubuhle buyini. Baphinde bacabanga ukuthi yiziphi izinhlobo engazithatha, noma ngabe ikhona emvelweni noma ekudaleni kuphela. Singasho ukuthi le mfundiso njengesiyalo yaqala kanyekanye nefilosofi futhi iyingxenye yayo. AmaPythagoreans, "ukuhlanganisa i-algebra nokuvumelana", ahlanganisa imiqondo yobuhle nezinombolo.

I-Aesthetics

Ubuhle buyivelu. Izethulo zomhlaba wasendulo kusukela enganekwaneni kuya ekuhlukaniseni ngezigaba

I-Aesthetics yobuciko

Izazi zefilosofi zasendulo zamaGreki zanamathisela ukubaluleka okukhethekile embonweni womsuka womhlaba osuka ezinxushunxushwini kanye nokulwela kwawo ukuzwana. Ngakho-ke, i-aesthetics yayingokwezigaba ze-ontology. Ngakho,i-macro- kanye ne-microcosm, okungukuthi, umuntu nendawo yonke, kwakumelwe kufane, kuhlanganise nobuhle. Izinganekwane zasendulo nazo zazihambisana nalesi sithombe somhlaba. Ama-Sophists aqaphela ukuthi imibono yobuhle ngokuvamile ixhomeke kumuntu ngokwakhe kanye nombono wakhe. Ngakho-ke, babeka ubuhle ngenani lezigaba zamanani ezakha isisekelo sobuntu. USocrates, ngokuphambene nalokho, wasikisela ukuthi ubuhle buwumqondo wokuziphatha, futhi ukuziphatha okubi kubi. Imibono yakhe yathuthukiswa kakhulu nguPlato, owaphawula ukuthi sithola imibono mayelana nokuhle "okuvela phezulu, njengokungathi siyakhumbula." Bavela ezweni lonkulunkulu. Futhi, ekugcineni, ku-Aristotle sithola inkolelo-mbono ephelele yokuthi ubuhle nokudala kudinga ukucabanga kwefilosofi nencazelo yesayensi. Waqale waphakamisa igama elithi "izigaba ze-aesthetics", futhi wabethula ekujikelezeni kwesayensi. U-Aristotle uhlukanisa amagama ayinhloko lapho umqondo wokudala ungavezwa khona: "enhle", "i-sublime", "imbi", "isisekelo", "comic", "inhlekelele". Uphinde wazama ukusungula ukuxhumana phakathi kwalezi zigaba nokuncika kwazo.

Izigaba ze-aesthetics

Ukuthuthukiswa kwezimfundiso zobuhle e-Europe kuze kube yizikhathi zanamuhla

Phakathi neNkathi Ephakathi, ikakhulukazi yokuqala, imfundiso yobuKristu kaPlato yayibusa ukuthi ubuhle buvela kuNkulunkulu, ngakho-ke kufanele “lulotshwe” emfundisweni yenkolo futhi lube ngaphansi kwakhe. UThomas Aquinas uthuthukisa ithiyori yobuhle kanye nokusebenziseka ngokulandela u-Aristotle. Ubheka ukuthi izigaba ze-aesthetics zenzelwe kanjani ukuholela umuntu kuNkulunkulu, futhinokuthi zizibonakalisa kanjani esimweni asidalile. Phakathi ne-Renaissance, i-theory yokugcina yathola ukuthandwa okukhulu, ngoba ukufuna ukuvumelana emvelweni ngosizo lwezibalo kanye nokuvezwa kwayo ngezithombe namagama kwaba yindlela eyinhloko yefilosofi yobuhle. Yile ndlela i-aesthetics yobuciko eyavela ngayo encazelweni yengcweti kaLeonardo da Vinci. Ikhulu le-19 lalibuswa imibono emithathu eyayilwela ukuthandwa phakathi kwezihlakaniphi zangaleso sikhathi. Okokuqala, lona umqondo wothando, owawugomela ngokuthi ubuhle bemvelo buyisipho semvelo kumuntu, futhi udinga nje ukwazi ukuzwa izwi lakhe ukuze ulifake emsebenzini wakho. Khona-ke - ifilosofi ye-Hegelian, eyaphikisana ngokuthi inkolelo yobuhle ingenye yezindlela zokuthuthukiswa komqondo ophelele, futhi inezigaba ezithile zomlando zokwakheka, njengokuziphatha. Futhi, ekugcineni, imibono kaKant yokuthi i-aesthetics ingumbono wethu wemvelo njengento enenjongo. Lesi sithombe sakhiwe ekhanda lethu, futhi thina ngokwethu siletha emhlabeni osizungezile. Eqinisweni, ubuhle buvela "endaweni yenkululeko" hhayi emvelweni. Ekupheleni kwekhulu le-19, inhlekelele yaqala ngendlela evamile yethiyori yobuhle, kodwa lesi isihloko sengxoxo ehluke ngokuphelele.

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