Umbhali waseMelika u-Truman Capote: umlando wokuphila, ubuciko kanye namaqiniso athakazelisayo

Umbhali waseMelika u-Truman Capote: umlando wokuphila, ubuciko kanye namaqiniso athakazelisayo
Umbhali waseMelika u-Truman Capote: umlando wokuphila, ubuciko kanye namaqiniso athakazelisayo
Anonim

Ephuma emndenini ongasebenzi kahle, u-Capote wenza umsebenzi wokubhala okhaliphile futhi waduma emhlabeni wonke ngenoveli yakhe ethi "In Cold Blood". Esihlokweni, sizobheka kabanzi umsebenzi walo muntu.

Ubuntwana

I-biography kaTruman Capote yaqala e-New Orleans, e-Louisiana. Wayeyindodana ka-Lilly May Faulk oneminyaka engu-17 ubudala kanye nomdayisi u-Arculus Strekfus. Abazali bakhe bahlukana lapho eneminyaka engu-4 futhi wathunyelwa eMonroeville, e-Alabama lapho akhuliswa khona izihlobo zikanina iminyaka emine kuya kwemihlanu elandelayo. Ngokushesha waba umngane nesihlobo esikude sikanina, uNanny Rumbly Faulk. E-Monroeville, waba umngane nomakhelwane wakhe u-Harper Lee, owahlala engumngane wakhe omkhulu ukuphila kwakhe konke.

Late Capote

Njengengane enesizungu, u-Truman Capote wafunda ukufunda nokubhala ngaphambi kokungena ebangeni lokuqala. Wayevame ukubonakala eneminyaka engu-5ephethe isichazamazwi kanye nencwajana yokubhalela - yilapho-ke waqala ukuzilolongela ukubhala izindaba.

Isikhathi sendaba emfushane

U-Capote waqala ukubhala izindaba ezimfushane ezinde cishe iminyaka engu-8 ubudala. Ngo-2013, umshicileli waseSwitzerland u-Peter Haag wathola izindaba ezingashicilelwe ezingu-14 ezabhalwa ngesikhathi u-Capote esemusha e-New York Public Library Archives. I-Random House yazishicilela ngo-2015 njengezindaba Zakuqala zika-Truman Capote.

Phakathi kodumo nokungaziwa

I-Random House, umshicileli we- Other Voices, Other Rooms, iqale ngokushicilela incwadi ka-Truman Capote yango-1949 ethi Voices of the Grass. Ngokungeziwe kokuthi "Miriam", leli qoqo lihlanganisa nezindaba ezifana nethi "Close the Last Door", eyaqala ukushicilelwa ku-Atlantic Monthly (August 1947).

Ngemuva kwe-The Voices of the Grass, u-Capote ushicilele iqoqo lezincwadi zakhe zokuhamba, Umbala Wendawo (1950), ohlanganisa izindatshana eziyisishiyagalolunye ezashicilelwa okokuqala kumamagazini phakathi kuka-1946 no-1950.

UCapote esemusha

Indaba enkulukazi ye-autobiographical eyasungulwa ngeminyaka yawo-1930s, Inkumbulo KaKhisimusi yashicilelwa kumagazini i-Mademoiselle ngo-1956. Ikhishwe njengohlelo oluzimele olunoqwembe oluqinile ngo-1966 futhi selokhu yanyatheliswa ezinhlelweni eziningi kanye nemibhalo yezincwadi. Izingcaphuno zikaTruman Capote ezivela kule ncwadi zivame ukusetshenziswa njengezinto zokushicilelwa okunikelwe kumlando wangempela wokuphila komuntuumbhali.

Amanye amazwi, amanye amagumbi

Udumo lwencwadi ka-Truman Capote lwaqala ngokushicilelwa kwenoveli ye-semi-autobiographical ethi Other Voices, Other Rooms. Ngasikhathi sinye, umphakathi udonse ukunaka kobungqingili obuthaka, obungasho lutho, kamuva owayezonqoba i-New York bohemia ngesitayela sakhe sokubhala esigqamile kanye nomuzwa wamahlaya ongenakuqhathaniswa.

Umbhali ebusheni bakhe

Isiqephu sale noveli sinikezelwe ku-Joel Knox oneminyaka engu-13, osanda kushonelwa ngumama wakhe. UJoel ushiya eNew Orleans eyohlala noyise, owamshiya ngesikhathi sokuzalwa kwakhe. Lapho efika e-Scully-Scully, isithabathaba esikhulu, esibolile emaphandleni ase-Alabama, uJoel uhlangana nomama wakhe ongamzali onobungane u-Amy, u-Randolph ongcolile, kanye no-Idabel odelelayo, intombazane eba umngane wakhe. Uphinde abone intokazi engajwayelekile "enama-curls aphilayo" njengoba eyibuka efasiteleni eliphezulu.

Ngaphezu kwayo yonke imibuzo ka-Joel, ukuthi ukuphi uyise kuseyimpicabadala. Lapho ekugcineni evunyelwa ukubona uyise, uJoel wamangala lapho ethola ukuthi une-quadriplegic. Uyise wagcina ewe phansi ezitebhisini ngemuva kokudutshulwa ngephutha nguRandolph. U-Joel ubalekela u-Idabel, kodwa uthola inyumoniya futhi ekugcineni ubuyela ku-Scully-Scully.

Truman Capote: "Ibhulakufesi e-Tiffany's"

"Ibhulakufesi kwa-Tiffany's: Inoveli Emfishane Nezindaba Ezintathu" (1958) kuhlanganiswe inoveli enesihloko kanye nezindaba ezintathu ezimfushane: "Indlu Yezimbali", "Isiginci Sedayimane" kanye"Inkumbulo kaKhisimusi" Umlingisi ophambili wale noveli, u-Holly Golightly, waba ngomunye wezinto ezidalwe u-Capote ezaziwa kakhulu, futhi isitayela se-prose sencwadi siholele ekutheni u-Norman Mailer abize u-Capote ngokuthi "umbhali ophumelele kakhulu esizukulwaneni sami."

UCapote osemncane

Indaba ngokwayo ekuqaleni yayizoshicilelwa kumagazini kaJulayi 1958 weHarper's Bazaar, ezinyangeni ezimbalwa ngaphambi kokuba ishicilelwe njengencwadi yiRandom House. Kodwa umshicileli we-Harper's Hearst Corporation waqala ukufuna izinguquko olimini olubhaliwe lukaCapote, akwenza ngokungabaza, ngoba wayethanda izithombe zikaDavid Attie nomsebenzi wokuklama womqondisi wezobuciko we-Harper's Bazaar u-Alexei Brodovich ukuze uhambisane nombhalo.

Kodwa ngaphandle kwemizamo yakhe, indaba ayizange ishicilelwe. Ulimi lwakhe lokubhala olugunyaziwe kanye nendaba kwakusabhekwa "njengokungafaneleki", futhi kwakukhona ukukhathazeka ukuthi u-Tiffany, umkhangisi omkhulu, uzosabela kabi ekushicilelweni kwencwadi. Ethukiwe, u-Capote waphinda wadayisela i-novella kumagazini i-Esquire ngoNovemba 1958.

Truman Capote: "In Cold Blood"

Incwadi entsha ethi In Cold Blood: A True Tale of Mass Murder and Its Consequences (1965) yagqugquzelwa yindatshana enamagama angama-300 eyashicilelwa ngoNovemba 16, 1959 ku-New York Times. Ichaze ukubulawa okungaqondakali komndeni wakwaClutter emaphandleni ase-Holcomb, e-Kansas, futhi yahlanganisa nesiqephu esivela kusherifu wendawo: "Kubonakala sengathi kukhona i-psychopath esebenza lapha."umbulali".

I-Capote enezibuko

Emangazwe yilesi siqephu sezindaba esifushane, u-Capote washayela no-Harper Lee baya e-Holcomb futhi wavakashela indawo yesigameko. Eminyakeni embalwa eyalandela, wazane nabo bonke ababehililekile ophenyweni kanye neningi labantu edolobheni elincane nasendaweni. Esikhundleni sokuthatha amaphuzu phakathi nezingxoxo, uCapote wabamba ngekhanda zonke izingxoxo futhi ngokucophelela wabhala phansi zonke izicaphuno ayezikhumbula kubantu okwaxoxwa nabo. Uthe ukwazi ukukhumbula ngaphezu kuka-90% kwalokho akuzwile.

Fatal Affair

"In Cold Blood" yashicilelwa ngo-1966 ngabakwaRandom House ngemuva kokukhishwa kwe-serial ku-New Yorker. "Inoveli engeyona eqanjiwe," njengoba uCapote ayibiza kanjalo, yamlethela ukuqashelwa kwezincwadi futhi yaba edayisa kakhulu emhlabeni wonke, kodwa umbhali ohlonishwayo akakaze ashicilele enye inoveli kusukela ngaleso sikhathi.

Ukugxekwa okukhulu

Kodwa ukudalelwa akubanga nomusa kangako ku-Truman Capote - ukubuyekezwa kwenoveli yakhe ehamba phambili bekulokhu kungakuhle ngaso sonke isikhathi, ikakhulukazi e-UK. Ukungaboni ngaso linye phakathi kukaCapote nomgxeki waseBrithani uKenneth Tynan kuqubuke emakhasini e-Observer kulandela ukubuyekezwa kukaTynan kwethi In Cold Blood. Umgxeki ubenesiqiniseko sokuthi u-Capote uhlale efuna ukubulawa kwabasolwa abachazwe kule noveli kwenzeke, ukuze le ncwadi ibe nesiphetho esimangalisayo.

I-Old Truman Capote

UTynan wabhala: "Ekugcineni sikhuluma ngesibopho: umsebenzi umbhali,mhlawumbe unalo phambi kwalabo abamnikeza izinto zokubhala - kuze kufike kubakaki bokugcina be-autobiographical - okuyiyona ndlela yokuziphilisa yanoma yimuphi umbhali … Ngokokuqala ngqa, umbhali onethonya wezinga lokuqala wabekwa endaweni eyilungelo eduze nezigebengu. sebelungele ukufa, futhi, ngokubona kwami, akenzanga lutho ukubasindisa. Phakathi kokunaka, izinto eziza kuqala zincipha kakhulu, futhi yini okufanele ize kuqala: umsebenzi ophumelelayo noma impilo yabantu ababili? Umzamo wokusiza (ngokuhlinzeka ngobufakazi obusha bengqondo) ungahluleka kalula, futhi esimweni sikaCapote, ubufakazi bokuthi akazange azame ngempela ukubasindisa."

Impilo yangasese

U-Capote akazange afihle ukuthi ungowabantu abambalwa kwezocansi. Omunye wabalingani bakhe bokuqala abaqotho kwakunguprofesa wezincwadi wakwaSmith College, uNewton Arvin, owazuza indondo yeNational Book Award nge-biography yakhe ngo-1951, futhi uCapote anikezela kuye Amanye Amazwi, Amanye Amagumbi. Noma kunjalo, uCapote wachitha ingxenye enkulu yokuphila kwakhe nozakwabo uJack Dunphy. Encwadini yakhe ethi Dear Genius…: A Memoir of My Life with Truman Capote, uDunphy uzama ukuchaza uCapote ayemazi futhi emthanda ebudlelwaneni bakhe, embiza ngophumelele kakhulu futhi ekhala ngokuthi ekugcineni, izidakamizwa zombhali nokudakwa kotshwala konakala. kokubili ukuphila kwabo komuntu siqu okuhlanganyelwe kanye nomsebenzi wakhe.

UDunphy uhlinzeka mhlawumbe ngokubuka okujulile nokusondele kakhulu empilweni ka-Capote ngaphandle komsebenzi wakhe. Nakuba ubuhlobo bukaCapote noDunphy baqhubekainingi lempilo kaCapote, ngezinye izikhathi kubonakala sengathi baphila izimpilo ezahlukene. Izindlu zabo ezihlukene zavumela bobabili ukuthi balondoloze ukuzimela bobabili ebudlelwaneni futhi, njengoba uDunphy avuma, “kumsindise ekucabangeni okubuhlungu kokuphuza kukaCapote nokuthatha izidakamizwa.”

UCapote wayaziwa kakhulu ngephimbo lakhe eliphakeme elingajwayelekile nezindlela zezwi eziyinqaba, kanye nokugqoka kwakhe okungajwayelekile kanye nenhlanganisela eyinqaba. Wayevame ukuthi wazi abantu ayengakaze ahlangane nabo, njengoGreta Garbo. Uthe ube nezindaba eziningi namadoda abethathwa njengabantu abathandana nobulili obuhlukile, okuhlanganisa, ngokusho kwakhe, no-Errol Flynn. Uhambe umbuthano ohlukahlukene wemibuthano yezenhlalo, exhumana nababhali, abagxeki, izingqalabutho zamabhizinisi, ama-philanthropists, osaziwayo baseHollywood nabasetiyetha, izicukuthwane, amakhosi, namalungu ezigaba eziphezulu - e-US nakwamanye amazwe.

UCapote no-Lee Radziwill

Ingxenye yempilo yakhe yomphakathi kube umbango wesikhathi eside nombhali u-Gore Vidal. Ukuqhudelana kwabo kwenze uTennessee Williams wakhononda, "Kufana nokuthi balwela umklomelo wegolide." Ngaphandle kwababhali ayethandana nabo (uVilla Cater, u-Isak Dinesen, noMarcel Proust), uCapote wayengenandaba nabanye ababhali. Kodwa-ke, omunye wabambalwa abathole imvume yakhe kwaba yintatheli uLacey Fosburgh, umbhali wencwadi ethi Closing Time: The True Story of the Gubab Murder (1977). Uphinde wazwakalisa ukuthakaselaIncwadi ka-Andy Warhol ethi "The Philosophy of Andy Warhol: from A to B and back".

Nakuba u-Capote engakaze ahileleke ngokugcwele emkhankasweni wamalungelo ezitabane, ukuvuleleka kwakhe ngobungqingili kanye nokukhuthaza kwakhe ukuvuleleka kwabanye kumenza umuntu obalulekile emkhakheni wamalungelo achezukile ngokocansi. Esihlokweni sakhe esithi Capote and the Trillions: Homophobia and Literary Culture in the Mid-Century, uJeff Solomon uchaza kabanzi ngomhlangano phakathi kukaCapote noLionel noDiana Trilling, izihlakaniphi ezimbili zaseNew York nabagxeki bemibhalo. U-Capote wabe esegxeka kakhulu u-Lionel Trilling, osanda kushicilela incwadi emayelana no-E. M. Forst, kodwa wakushaya indiva ubungqingili bomlobi.

Ukufa kombhali

UCapote ushone ngo-1984 ngenxa yezinkinga zempilo ezidalwa ukusebenzisa kabi izidakamizwa notshwala. Kusukela ezinsukwini ze-"Cold-blooded Murder" akakaze aqede ngisho neyodwa inoveli, waba yisigqila kakhulu, waba nempandla futhi waba umlutha wezidakamizwa ezingekho emthethweni. Kwakuyinani elibabayo uTruman Capote alikhokha ngenxa yokuthandwa kwakhe. E-Monroeville, e-Alabama, i-Capote House Museum isasebenza, egcina izincwadi zakhe zomuntu siqu kanye nezinto ezihlukahlukene kusukela ebuntwaneni bombhali.

Izibuyekezo kweminye imisebenzi

"Miriam" ikalwe ngokuthi "inganekwane, psychological" kanye nomhlahlandlela wokufunda omuhle kakhulu we-dual personality disorder.

Reynolds Price uphawula ukuthi izincwadi ezimbili ezimfushane zikaCapote, "Miriam" kanye nethi "Pitchersilver", kukhombisa ukujwayelana kwakhe nabanye ababhali abasebasha, ikakhulukazi uCarson McCuller.

Abafundi bakuqaphele ukufanekisa endabeni, ikakhulukazi ukusetshenziswa kwezimbali ezingutsheni. Oluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka, umbala oyintandokazi kaNkk Miller, ubonwa njengophawu lokudabuka. Umbala onsomi ubonakala njengophawu lomcebo, kuyilapho umhlophe ubonakala njengophawu lokuhlanzeka, ubuhle kanye nempilo. Ngokuphawulekayo, uMiriam uvame ukugqoka ezimhlophe, futhi izikhathi eziningi phakathi nendaba likhithika futhi iqhwa nalo limhlophe. Umsuka wesiHeberu wegama elithi "Miriam" ungahunyushwa ngokuthi "isifiso somntwana", esingachaza okuningi kwalokho uNkosikazi Miller akufunayo nakubona esivakashi sakhe esincane. UMiriyam angabonakala njengophawu lwengelosi yokufa.

UCapote uphinde aphawule ngezindikimba zokuzibonakalisa eziwumgogodla wendaba: "… Okuwukuphela kwento amlahlekela uMiriam kwakuwubunikazi bakhe, kodwa manje wayeseyazi ukuthi wayesemtholile umuntu owayehlala kulelo gumbi futhi."

Abagxeki batuswe ngamandla nangokuyinhloko kanye "Nezwi Lotshani". I-New York Herald Tribune yancoma le noveli ngokuthi "iyamangalisa… ihlanganiswe nokuhleka okumnene, imfudumalo ekhangayo yomuntu nomuzwa wekhwalithi yokuphila enhle." I-Atlantic Monthly iphawule yathi i-"Voices of the Grass" iyakukhanga ngoba unomqondo wombhali wokuthi kukhona izinkondlo ezikhethekile - ukuzenzela, ukumangala nokujabula - empilweni engangcoliswanga umqondo ophusile. "Ukuthengiswa kwale ncwadi kufinyelele ku-13,500, okungaphezulu ngaphezu kokuphindwe kabili kunemisebenzi emibili kaCapote yangaphambilini.

Ibhuku elithi "Voicesutshani" kwakuyintandokazi ka-Truman Capote, naphezu kokugxekwa njengokuzwela kakhulu.

Endalini yakhe ethi "Breakfast at Sally Bowles", u-Ingrid Norton we-Open Letters wakhomba isikweletu sika-Capote ku-Christopher Isherwood, omunye wabeluleki bakhe, ekwakheni umlingisi ka-Holly Golightly: "Ibhulakufesi e-Tiffany's" inokuningi okufanele ikwenze. yenza ngecrystallization yomuntu siqu u-Capote Sally wase-Isherwood Bowles".

U-anti kaTruman Capote, uMarie Rudisill, uphawula ukuthi u-Holly uyisibonelo sikaMiss Lily Jane Bobbitt, umlingisi oyinhloko endabeni yakhe emfushane ethi "Children on their Birthdays". Uphawula ukuthi bobabili abalingiswa "bangabazulazuli bamahhala, abaphuphi balwela ukuthola injabulo yabo." UCapote ngokwakhe uvumile ukuthi u-Gollightly ubengumlingiswa wakhe oyintandokazi.

Izinkondlo zesitayela se-novella zenze u-Norman Mailer ukuthi abize u-Capote ngokuthi "umbhali ophelele wesizukulwane sami", wengeza ngokuthi "ngeke ashintshe amagama amabili ku-Breakfast kwaTiffany."

Ebhala indatshana ku-New York Times, u-Conrad Knickerbocker uncome ikhono lika-Capote lokuchaza imininingwane ngemininingwane kuyo yonke inoveli futhi wamemezela le ncwadi "iwumsebenzi wobuciko, obuhlungu, ohlasimulisayo, nobufakazi obuqand' ikhanda bokuthi izikhathi eziphumelela kangaka ekuchazeni izinhlekelele zisakwazi nikeza umhlaba usizi lwangempela."

Ekubuyekezweni okubucayi kuka-1966 kwenoveli ye-New Republic, uStanley Kaufman, egxeka isitayela sokubhala sikaCapote kuyo yonke inoveli, uthi yena"ibonisa cishe kuwo wonke amakhasi ukuthi uyingcweti yesitayela esetshenziswe ngokwedlulele kakhulu esikhathini sethu", bese ithi "ukujula kule ncwadi akujulile kunemayini yemininingwane yayo eyiqiniso, ukuphakama kwayo akuvamile ukuba kube phezulu kunobuntatheli obuhle., futhi ngokuvamile iwela ngisho nangaphansi kwakhe."

Tom Wolfe wabhala endabeni yakhe ethi "Porn Violence": "Le ncwadi akuyona ngoba izimpendulo zayo yomibili le mibuzo zaziwa kusukela ekuqaleni… Kunalokho, ukulangazelela le ncwadi kusekelwe kakhulu embonweni omusha sha. ezindabeni zabaseshi: imininingwane ethembisayo nokubamba kuze kube sekupheleni."

Umbuyekezi u-Keith Colkhun uphikisa ngokuthi "Egazini Elibandayo", u-Capote abhalela khona amakhasi angu-8,000 wamanothi ocwaningo, yakhiwe futhi yahlelwa ngethalente lokubhala elinezinkinga. Iphrozi ecophelelayo ixhuma umfundi nendaba yakhe eqhubekayo. Kalula nje, le ncwadi yaqanjwa njengentatheli ephenyayo futhi yazalwa njengenoveli.

Imithandazo Ephenduliwe: Inoveli Engaqedwanga

Isihloko sencwadi sibhekisele kusicaphuni esivela ku-Saint Teresa wase-Ávila uCapote asikhetha njenge-epigraph yakhe: "Izinyembezi eziningi ziyakhala ngenxa yemithandazo ephenduliwe kunemithandazo engaphendulwanga."

Ngokusho komhleli wohlelo luka-Joseph M. Fox luka-1987, u-Capote usayine inkontileka yokuqala yale noveli, okuthiwa unguzakwabo wesimanje waseMelika ku-Marcel Proust's In Search of Lost Time, ngoJanuwari 5, 1966, neRandom House.. Lesi sivumelwano sihlinzekela kusengaphambili i-25,000Amadola aseMelika anedethi yomhla ka-Januwari 1, 1968.

Summer Cruise: Inoveli Elahlekile ka-Capote

UCapote waqala ukubhala "Summer Cruise" ngo-1943 ngenkathi esebenzela i-New Yorker. Ngemva kokuhamba kusihlwa eMonroeville, Alabama, futhi wagqugquzelwa ukuba abhale inoveli yakhe yokuqala eshicilelwe, Amanye Amazwi, Amanye Amagumbi, wawubekela eceleni lo mbhalo wesandla. Ngo-August 30, 1949, uCapote, eseholidini eNyakatho Afrika, watshela ummemezeli wakhe ukuthi wayecishe abe izingxenye ezimbili kwezintathu zomsebenzi wakhe wokuqala omkhulu ngempela. Wakhuluma ngethemba lokuthi uzowuqeda lo mbhalo wesandla ekupheleni konyaka, waze wafunga nokuthi wayengeke abuyele e-United States aze enze kanjalo, kodwa akazange athembise umshicileli wakhe umsebenzi ongaphezu kowodwa ngonyaka. U-Capote ubelokhu enza izinguquko ezincane emsebenzini wakhe cishe iminyaka eyi-10.

U-Robert Linscott, umhleli omkhulu we-Capote e-Random House, akazange ahlabeke umxhwele ngohlaka lwenoveli. Uthe wayecabanga ukuthi iyinoveli enhle, kodwa ayizange ibonise "isitayela sobuciko esihlukile" sikaCapote. Ngemva kokufunda le phrojekthi izikhathi eziningana, uCapote waphawula ukuthi inoveli yayibhalwe kahle futhi inesitayela kakhulu, kodwa ngesizathu esithile akazange ayithande. Ikakhulukazi, u-Capote waqala ukwesaba ukuthi le noveli yayicashile kakhulu, i-abstruse, i-slurred. Kamuva u-Capote wathi ucekele phansi umbhalo wesandla ongapholishiwe, kanye nezinye izincwadi ezimbalwa ze-prose, endaweni yokuzigxeka okunganele.

Inombolo yemibhalo, okuhlanganisa nombhalo wesandla we-"Summer Cruise", igcinwe efulethini e-BrooklynIzindawo eziphakeme lapho uCapote ahlala khona cishe ngo-1950. Ngemva kokushona komzanyana wendlu, umshana wakhe wathola amaphepha kaCapote wawafaka endalini ngo-2004. Amadokhumenti awazange athengise endalini ngenxa yentengo ephezulu futhi ngoba imibhalo ebonakalayo ayizange inikeze amalungelo okushicilela emsebenzini, owawuphethwe yiTruman Capote Literary Foundation. Kamuva, uMtapo Wolwazi WaseNew York wafinyelela isivumelwano sokuthenga amaphepha futhi uwagcine kungobo yomlando eqoqweni lawo laphakade elinikezelwe kumbhali omkhulu. Ngemva kokubonisana nommeli kaCapote, i-Summer Cruise yanyatheliswa ngo-2005. Uhlelo lokuqala lwachazwa embhalweni wesandla wokuqala kaCapote, owabhalwa ezincwadini ezine zesikole kanye namanothi engeziwe angama-62, kwalandelwa igama elivela ku-Alan W. Schwartz. Ingcaphuno evela endabeni iphinde yavela ku-New Yorker, Okthoba 24, 2005.

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