Allen Ginsberg: biography, imisebenzi, ukubuyekezwa

Allen Ginsberg: biography, imisebenzi, ukubuyekezwa
Allen Ginsberg: biography, imisebenzi, ukubuyekezwa
Anonim

U-Allen Ginsberg ubonakale ngokugqamile kusiko laseMelika kusukela ngeMpi Yezwe II. Ungomunye wababhali bezigqi ezihlonishwayo futhi uyimbongi edumile esizukulwaneni sakhe.

Allen Ginsberg: biography

Wazalwa ngo-1926 eNewark, eNew Jersey emndenini wamaJuda wokufika. Ukhulele ePaterson eseduze. Ubaba uLouis Ginsberg wayefundisa isiNgisi, kanti umama uNawomi wayenguthisha wesikole futhi eyisishoshovu eQenjini LamaKhomanisi lase-US. U-Allen Ginsberg wabona izinkinga zakhe ezingokwengqondo ebusheni bakhe, okuhlanganisa uchungechunge lokuphazamiseka kwemizwa ngenxa yokwesaba ukushushiswa ngenxa yemisebenzi yakhe yomphakathi.

allen ginsberg

Ukuqala kokunyakaza kwebhithi

Allen Ginsberg kanye no-Lucien Carr bahlangana ngo-1943 ngenkathi befunda e-Columbia University. Lesi sakamuva sahlanganisa umfundi owenza unyaka wokuqala noWilliam Burroughs noJack Kerouac. Abangane ngokuhamba kwesikhathi bazibonakalisa njengabantu ababalulekile ekunyakazeni kwesigqi. Baziwa ngokubuka kwabo okuxakile nokuziphatha okucasulayo, u-Allen nabangane bakhe baphinde basebenzisa izidakamizwa.

Ginsberg wake wasebenzisa igumbi lakhe lekolishi ukuze agcine izimpahla ezebiwe ezithengwe kubantu abaziyo. Ebhekene namacala, yenawanquma ukuzenza uhlanya wabe esehlala izinyanga ezimbalwa esibhedlela sabagula ngengqondo.

Ngemva kokuphothula enyuvesi, u-Allen wahlala eNew York futhi wenza imisebenzi eyahlukene. Ngo-1954, nokho, wathuthela eSan Francisco, lapho umnyakazo wokushaya wawumelwe izimbongi uKenneth Rexroth noLawrence Ferlinghetti.

Memeza ngokumelene nempucuko

U-Allen Ginsberg waqala ukubonakala emehlweni omphakathi ngo-1956 ngokushicilelwa kwe-The Shriek and Other Poems. Le nkondlo, ngokwesiko lika-W alt Whitman, iwukukhala kwentukuthelo nokuphelelwa ithemba ngokumelene nomphakathi obhubhisayo nongenabuntu. U-Kevin O'Sullivan ku-Newsmakers ubize le misebenzi ngezinkondlo ezicasulayo, ezibeka ingcaca ucansi futhi wengeza ngokuthi abaningi banomuzwa wokuthi kwakuyintuthuko eguquguqukayo ezinkondlweni zaseMelika. U-Allen Ginsberg ngokwakhe uchaze ukuthi "Memeza" ngokuthi "umoya we-bardic wamaJuda-Melville."

U-Allen Ginsberg ebusheni bakhe

Ulimi lwale nkondlo olusha, oluthembekile lummangaze abagxeki abaningi bendabuko. UJames Dickey, isibonelo, uchaze "Memeza" "njengesimo sokukhathala sokujabula" futhi waphetha ngokuthi "akwanele ukubhala izinkondlo". Abanye abagxeki basabela kahle kakhulu. URichard Eberhart, ngokwesibonelo, wabiza lo msebenzi ngokuthi “umsebenzi onamandla ophumela emqondweni oguquguqukayo… Uwukukhala ngokumelene nakho konke okusempucukweni yethu yemishini ebulala umoya… Amandla awo amahle namandla avela emandleni okuhlenga uthando." UPaul Carroll wabiza le nkondlo ngokuthi "enye yezenzakalo ezibalulekile zesizukulwane". Ehlola umthelela weThe Howl, uPaul Zweig waphawula ukuthi umbhali “uthathe indawo yakhe ngesandla esisodwa.izinkondlo zendabuko yawo-1950s.”

Inqubo

Ngaphezu kwabagxeki abathukile, "Scream" umangaze uMnyango Wamaphoyisa wase-San Francisco. Ngenxa yolimi lobulili oluyingcaca kule nkondlo, le ncwadi kwathiwa inenhlamba, futhi umshicileli, imbongi uFerlinghetti, waboshwa. Icala elalandela ladonsa ukunaka kuzwelonke kanye nezazi zemibhalo ezivelele: UMark Schorer, uKenneth Rexroth, noW alter Van Tilberg Clark bavikela i-The Howl. USchorer ufakaze ngokuthi “uGinsberg usebenzisa isigqi nesichazamazwi senkulumo evamile. Inkondlo iyaphoqeleka ukuthi isebenzise ulimi olunenhlamba. UClark ubize "Memeza" umsebenzi wembongi ethembeke ngokwedlulele ephinde ibe uchwepheshe onekhono eliphezulu. Ofakazi bagcine benxenxe iJaji uClayton Horn ukuthi likhiphe isinqumo sokuthi umsebenzi wawungewona amanyala.

Ngakho-ke, u-Allen Ginsberg, izimfanelo zakhe zenkondlo ezasatshalaliswa kabanzi phakathi necala, waba umbhali we-manifesto yenhlangano yokubhala ye-beatnik. Ababhali bamanoveli abanjengoJack Kerouac noWilliam Burroughs kanye nezimbongi uGregory Corso, uMichael McClure, uGary Snyder, kanye noGinsberg babhale ngezihloko ezingavumelekile nezingezona ezombhalo ngolimi lomgwaqo. Imibono ye-Beat flow nobuciko kube nomthelela omkhulu esikweni elidumile eMelika ngeminyaka yawo-1950s kanye nawo-1960s.

Umthandazo Wabafileyo

Ngo-1961, i-Ginsberg yashicilela i-Kaddish nezinye Izinkondlo. Inkondlo yayifana ngesitayela nangesimo esithi "The Cry" futhi, ngokusekelwe emthandazweni wendabuko wamaJuda wabafileyo, ilandisa ngokuphila kukanina. Imizwa eyinkimbinkimbi imbongi eyayinayo ngaye, enemibala yayo yokulwa nengqondoizifo zigxile kulo msebenzi. Ibhekwa njengenye yendalo ephambili ka-Allen, uThomas Merrill ayibiza ngokuthi "Ginsberg ngokucwebile futhi mhlawumbe engcono kakhulu" futhi uLouis Simpson ayibiza ngokuthi "umsebenzi wobuciko."

Yilokhu

U-Allen Ginsberg, imibhalo yakhe yathonywa kakhulu uWilliam Carlos Williams, ukhumbule isimo sakhe sesikole "njengesifundazwe esinodlame, esinodlame saseNew Jersey", kodwa ngemva kokukhuluma naye, "kungazelelwe wabona ukuthi imbongi yamlalela ngokucophelela" "izindlebe" ezingenalutho. Umsindo, umsindo ocacile nesigqi okwakukhulunywa ngaso eduze kwakhe, futhi wazama ukujwayelanisa isigqi sakhe senkondlo kusukela ku-colloquial yangempela ayizwile, hhayi kusukela kungoma ye-metronome noma ye-archaic literary.

Ngokusho kwembongi, ngemva kokubona okuzumayo, yenza ngokushesha. U-Allen Ginsberg ucaphuna ku-prose yakhe ngendlela yezingcezu ezincane zemigqa emi-4 noma emi-5, ehambisana ncamashi nengxoxo yomunye umuntu, ehlelwe ngokuvumelana nomoya, ngendlela okufanele iphulwe ngayo uma kudingeka ukuba ikhulunywe, bese ithunyelwa. baya kuWilliams. Wavele wamthumelela incwadi ebhalwe ukuthi: “Nansi! Usenakho lokhu?”

Kerouac nabanye

Elinye ithonya elibalulekile ku-Ginsberg umngane wakhe u-Kerouac, owabhala amanoveli "e-spontaneous prose" u-Allen awathakaselayo futhi wawaguqulela emsebenzini wakhe. U-Kerouac wabhala ezinye zezincwadi zakhe ngokulayisha umshini wokubhala ngomqulu wephepha elimhlophe futhi ebhala ngokuqhubekayo "emfuleni wokuqaphela". U-Allen Ginsberg waqala ukubhala izinkondlo ngendlela ehlukile kulokho athi, "esebenza kuzoizingcezu ezincane nezingcezu zezikhathi ezahlukene, kodwa ugcina umqondo engqondweni, futhi uwubhala phansi ngaso leso sikhathi, futhi uwuqedele lapho.”

allen ginsberg akhale

U-Williams no-Kerouac bagcizelele imizwa yombhali nendlela yemvelo yokukhuluma ngaphezu kwezakhiwo zombhalo zendabuko. UGinsberg ucaphune izethulo zomlando zalo mbono ezincwadini zembongi u-W alt Whitman, umbhali wephrozi uHerman Melville, nababhali uHenry David Thoreau noRalph Waldo Emerson.

Ipolitiki yaseLibertarian

Itimu eyinhloko yempilo nomsebenzi ka-Ginsberg bekuyipolitiki. U-Kenneth Rexroth ubize lesi sici somsebenzi ka-Allen ngokuthi “umfanekiso ocishe uphelele wesiko likaWhitman elidumile lokuguquguquka kwezenhlalo ezibongweni zaseMelika. Ezinkondlweni ezimbalwa, uGinsberg ukhuluma ngemizabalazo yezinyunyana ngeminyaka yawo-1930s, abantu abadumile abanamandla, ukuzingela okubomvu kukaMcCarthy, nezinye izigigaba zenhlangano yesokunxele. Ku-Wichita Vortex Sutra, uzama ukuqeda iMpi YaseVietnam ngohlobo oluthile lwesipelingi somlingo. Ku-Ode ka-Pluto, indlela efanayo ihlolwe - umoya wemilingo wembongi ukhulula amandla e-athomu ezimfanelweni zayo eziyingozi. Ezinye izinkondlo ezinjengokuthi "Memeza", nakuba zingezona ezombangazwe, nokho abagxeki abaningi babhekwa njengeziqukethe ukugxeka okuqinile komphakathi.

Amandla ezimbali

Umsebenzi wepolitiki ka-Ginsberg ubungowokukhululeka kakhulu, enanela intandokazi yakhe yobunkondlo yokuziveza komuntu ngamunye esikhundleni sendabuko. Maphakathi nawo-1960, wayehlotshaniswa kakhulu ne-counterculture kanyeukunyakaza okulwa nempi. Wakha futhi walwela isu "lamandla ezimbali", lapho ababonisi abamelene nempi babekhuthaza izindinganiso ezinhle ezinjengokuthula nothando ukuze balingise ukuphikisana kwabo nokufa nokubhujiswa okubangelwe Impi YaseVietnam.

allen ginsberg izincwadi

Ukusetshenziswa kwezimbali, izinsimbi, ukumomotheka kanye nama-mantras (izingoma ezingcwele) kuvame phakathi kwababonisi isikhathi esithile. Ngo-1967, u-Ginsberg wayengumhleli we-Gathering of Tribes for Human Existence, umcimbi owenziwe njengomkhosi wenkolo wamaHindu. Bekuwumkhosi wokuqala ophikisana namasiko futhi waba ugqozi ezinkulungwaneni zabanye. Ngo-1969, lapho ezinye izishoshovu ezimelene nempi zenza "i-Pentagon exorcism," uGinsberg wamqambela i-mantra. Uphinde waba ngufakazi wezokuvikela eChicago G7 Trial lapho izishoshovu ezimelene nempi zabekwa icala "lokwakha itulo lokuwela imingcele yezwe ukuze kuqale uthuthuva."

Protester

Ngezinye izikhathi imisebenzi yezepolitiki yase-Ginsberg ibivusa ukusabela okuvela ezikhundleni zomthetho. Waboshwa embhikishweni wokulwa nempi eNew York ngo-1967 futhi wahlakazwa ngesisi esikhalisa izinyembezi kuDemocratic National Convention eChicago ngo-1968. Ngo-1972, waboshelwa ukubamba iqhaza emibhikishweni emelene noMongameli wangaleso sikhathi u-Richard Nixon eNgqungqutheleni Kazwelonke yaseRiphabhulikhi eMiami. Ngo-1978, yena nomngane wakhe omdala uPeter Orlovsky baboshelwa ukuvimba ujantshi wesitimela ukuze bamise isitimela esithwele.Udoti okhipha imisebe evela embonini yase-Rocky Flats, ekhiqiza i-plutonium yezinga lezikhali e-Colorado.

u-allen ginsberg biography

May King

Imisebenzi yezepolitiki kaGinsberg imdalele izinkinga nakwamanye amazwe. Ngo-1965 wavakashela eCuba njengomlobi we-Evergreen Review. Ngemva kokukhononda ngokuphathwa kwezitabane eNyuvesi yaseHavana, uhulumeni wacela uGinsberg ukuba alishiye izwe. Ngawo lowo nyaka, imbongi yaya eCzechoslovakia, lapho yakhethwa khona "iNkosi kaMeyi" izinkulungwane zezakhamizi zaseCzech. Ngakusasa, uhulumeni waseCzech wamcela ukuba ahambe ngoba “wayengcolile futhi ebolile”. UGinsberg ngokwakhe wachaza ukudingiswa kwakhe ngokuthi amaphoyisa omshoshaphansi aseCzech abe namahloni ngokuvunyelwa okujwayelekile "kwembongi yenganekwane yaseMelika enentshebe".

Mystic

Enye inkinga eyabonakala ezinkondlweni zikaGinsberg kwaba ukugcizelelwa kwezikamoya nezingaqondakali. Intshisekelo yakhe kulezi zindaba yagqugquzelwa uchungechunge lwemibono abenayo ngenkathi efunda izinkondlo zikaWilliam Blake. U-Allen Ginsberg ukhumbule "izwi le-sepulchral elijulile kakhulu ekamelweni", lapho ngokushesha, ngaphandle kokucabanga, libangelwa izwi likaBlake. Wanezela ukuthi “kukhona into engenakulibaleka ngekhwalithi yomsindo okhethekile, ngoba kwakubonakala sengathi uNkulunkulu unezwi lomuntu elinobumnene obungapheli nobunzalamizi nomthwalo ongokomzimba woMdali ophilayo ekhuluma nendodana yakhe. Imibono enjalo yavusa isithakazelo kuyimfihlakalo, okwaholela imbongi ekuhloleni kwesikhashana izidakamizwa ezihlukahlukene. KanjaniU-Allen Ginsberg kamuva wathi wabhala "Memeza" ngaphansi kwethonya le-peyote, "Kaddish" - ngenxa yama-amphetamines, kanye ne-"Wales - a visit" - nge-LSD.

ukubuyekezwa kwe-allen ginsberg

Ngemuva kohambo oluya e-India ngo-1962, lapho aziswa khona ukuzindla kanye ne-yoga, u-Ginsberg washintsha isimo sakhe sengqondo mayelana nezidakamizwa. Wayeqiniseka ukuthi ukuzindla kanye ne-yoga kwakungcono kakhulu ekukhuliseni isimo sokuqwashisa, kodwa wayebheka i-hallucinogens ewusizo ekubhaleni izinkondlo. I-Psychedelics, uthi, iwuhlobo lwe-yoga kanye nendlela yokuhlola ukwazi.

Ukuguqulelwa ku-Buddhism

Isifundo sikaGinsberg ngezinkolo zaseMpumalanga saqala ngemva kokuthola amazwi aphindaphindwayo, izingoma ezinesigqi ezisetshenziswa emikhubeni yomoya. Ukusebenzisa kwabo isigqi, umoya kanye nemisindo eyisisekelo kubonakala kuye kuwuhlobo lwezinkondlo. Ezinkondlweni eziningi, wafaka amazwi ahlabayo embhalweni, eguqula umsebenzi ube uhlobo lomthandazo. Wayevame ukuqala ukufundwa kwezinkondlo ngokuphinda amazwi ahlabayo ukuze abeke isimo sengqondo esifanele. Isithakazelo sakhe ezinkolweni zaseMpumalanga sagcina simholele kuMfundisi uChogyama Trungpa, umbusi waseTibet ongumBuddha owayenethonya elinamandla emsebenzini kaGinsberg. Ekuqaleni kwawo-1970, imbongi yathatha amakilasi e-Trungpa Institute e-Colorado futhi yafunda izinkondlo. Ngo-1972, u-Allen Ginsberg wenza izifungo zeBodhisattva, wamukela ngokusemthethweni ubuBuddha.

Isici esiyinhloko sokuqeqeshwa kukaTrungpa uhlobo lokuzindla olubizwa ngokuthi i-shamatha, lapho umuntu egxila ekuphefumuleni kwakhe. NgokukaGinsberg, kuholela ekuthulisweni kwengqondo, ukukhiqizwa kwemishini kwefantasy nengqondoamafomu; lokhu kuholela ekuqwashiseni okuphezulu nasekucatshangelweni kwazo. Incwadi ethi "Breaths of the Mind" enikezelwe ku-Trungpa iqukethe izinkondlo ezimbalwa ezibhalwe ngosizo lokuzindla kwe-shamatha.

Kusuka kumanikiniki kuya engcebweni

Ngo-1974, u-Allen Ginsberg kanye nozakwabo u-Ann Waldman basungula i-Jack Kerouac School of Disembodied Poetry njengenxusa le-Naropa Institute. Ngokusho kwembongi, umbono omkhulu wawuwukusungula ikolishi elihlala njalo lezobuciko ngokwesiko laseTibet, lapho kukhona othisha nabafundi abahlala ndawonye esakhiweni esisodwa esizosebenza amakhulu eminyaka. Ukuze afundise futhi akhulume esikoleni, uGinsberg waheha ababhali abavelele abafana noDiana di Prima, uRon Padgett, noWilliam Burroughs. Ehlobanisa izinkondlo zakhe nesithakazelo ezintweni ezingokomoya, uGinsberg wake wathi ukwengezwa kwezinkondlo kuwuhlobo lokuzazi ukuze uzithuthukise, ukhulula ukwazi komuntu ongeyena. Kuwuhlobo lokuzitholela imvelo yomuntu kanye nobuyena, noma ubuyena bomuntu, kanye nokuqonda ukuthi iyiphi ingxenye yakhe ngaphandle kwakho.

Ginsberg wabhekana nokunye okulingana nemibhalo yalokho okubizwa ngokuthi "amanikiniki kuya engcebweni" - kusukela emsebenzini wakhe “ongcolile” owesabekayo nowawugxekayo kuya ekufakweni kwakhe kamuva "eqenjini lezincwadi zaseMelika." Wayengomunye wezimbongi ezinethonya elikhulu esizukulwaneni sakhe futhi, ngokukaJames Mersman, "umuntu obalulekile emlandweni wezinkondlo."

Iminyaka yakamuva

Idokhumentari eqondiswe nguJerry Aronson, The Life and Times ka-Allen Ginsberg yakhululwa ngo-1994. Ngawo lowo nyaka, iNyuvesi yaseStanford yakhokhela imbongi isigidi samaRandi ukuze izenzele yonaingobo yomlando. Izinkondlo ezintsha kanye namaqoqo emisebenzi yangaphambilini kaGinsberg aqhubeka nokushicilelwa njalo. Futhi izincwadi zakhe, omagazini ngisho nezithombe zozakwabo be-beatnik zenze kwaba nokwenzeka ukubheka kabusha impilo nomsebenzi wembongi.

izingcaphuno ze-allen ginsberg

Ngentwasahlobo ka-1997, u-Ginsberg, owayenesifo sikashukela kanye ne-hepatitis engapheli, watholakala enomdlavuza wesibindi. Ngemva kokufunda lesi sifo, ngokushesha wabhala izinkondlo 12 short. Ngakusasa imbongi yashaywa unhlangothi yaze yaquleka. Washona ngemva kwezinsuku ezimbili. Ku-New York Times, uWilliam Burroughs wavalelisa kuye, embiza “indoda enkulu enethonya lomhlaba.”

Allen Ginsberg: izincwadi

Izinkondlo zeminyaka embalwa edlule yempilo yembongi zaqoqwa encwadini ethi Ukufa Nenkazimulo: Izinkondlo, 1993-1997. Lo mqulu uhlanganisa imisebenzi eyakhiwe ngokushesha ngemva kokuba u-Allen eqaphele ukugula kwakhe. Umbuyekezi wePublishers Weekly uchaze iqoqo "njengomvuthwandaba ophelele wempilo ehloniphekile". URay Olson noJack Helberg, bebhala ku-Booklist, bathola izinkondlo zikaGinsberg “ziphucuziwe, uma zingaminyene,” futhi uRochelle Ratner, ekuhloleni kwe-Library Journal, uphawula ukuthi “inobufakazi obuningi bokuzwela nokukhathalela.”

Okunye okushicilelwe ngemva kokushona kukaGinsberg, I-Deliberate Prose: I-Essays Ekhethiwe, 1952-1995, ihlanganisa izindatshana ezingaphezu kuka-150 ngezikhali zenuzi, iMpi YaseVietnam, ukucwaninga, izimbongi ezinjengoW alt Whitman noGregory the beatnik Corso, nezinye izingwazi zamasiko. kuhlanganise noJohn Lennon kanye nomthwebuli wezithombe uRobert Franke. Umgxeki wePublishers Weekly uncome le ncwadi ngokuthi “ngezinye izikhathi imnandi, ngezinye izikhathi inobudlabha” futhi wengeza ngokuthi"iqinisekile ukuthi izohambisana nenqwaba yabathandi bembongi." Uhlu lwezincwadi luthole indaba kaGinsberg "ifinyeleleka kakhulu kuneningi lezinkondlo zakhe."

Mirror of my time

I-Ginsberg ingathanda ukukhunjulwa kanjani? Ngokusho kwakhe, njengomuntu othile emasikweni ama-American transcendental individualism, kusukela esikoleni esidala samaGnostic sikaThoreau, u-Emerson, Whitman, owabadlulisela ekhulwini lama-20. UGinsberg wake wachaza ukuthi kukho konke ukwehluleka komuntu, uyibekezelela kakhulu intukuthelo; kubangane bakhe, wayekwazisa kakhulu ukuzola nokuthambekela kobulili; umsebenzi wakhe omuhle kwaba "ukuveza imizwa enkampanini". "Uthanda noma cha, akekho obonisa isikhathi sakhe njengoMnu. Ginsberg," umbuyekezi we-Economist waphetha. "Ubeyisixhumanisi phakathi kwe-literary avant-garde nesiko le-pop."

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